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Open AccessArticle

Effectiveness of Fly Ash and Red Mud as Strategies for Sustainable Acid Mine Drainage Management

1
IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
2
Pyrometallurgy Division, MINTEK, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125, South Africa
3
School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080707
Received: 7 June 2020 / Revised: 3 August 2020 / Accepted: 6 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
Acid mine drainage (AMD), red mud (RM) and coal fly ash (CFA) are potential high environmental pollution problems due to their acidity, toxic metals and sulphate contents. Treatment of acidic mine water requires the generation of enough alkalinity to neutralize the excess acidity. Therefore, red mud types from Germany and Greece were chosen for the neutralization of AMD from South Africa, where this problem is notorious. Because of the high alkalinity, German red mud is the most promising precipitation agent achieving the highest pH-values. CFA is less efficient for a neutralization and precipitation process. An increase in temperature increases the adsorption kinetics. The maximum pH-value of 6.0 can be reached by the addition of 100 g German red mud at 20 °C to AMD-water with an initial pH value of 1.9. German red mud removes 99% of the aluminium as aluminium hydroxide at pH 5.0. The rare earth elements (yttrium and cerium) are adsorbed by Greek red mud with an efficiency of 50% and 80% at 60 °C in 5 min, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: acid mine drainage; secondary materials; management; absorption; precipitation acid mine drainage; secondary materials; management; absorption; precipitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keller, V.; Stopić, S.; Xakalashe, B.; Ma, Y.; Ndlovu, S.; Mwewa, B.; Simate, G.S.; Friedrich, B. Effectiveness of Fly Ash and Red Mud as Strategies for Sustainable Acid Mine Drainage Management. Minerals 2020, 10, 707. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080707

AMA Style

Keller V, Stopić S, Xakalashe B, Ma Y, Ndlovu S, Mwewa B, Simate GS, Friedrich B. Effectiveness of Fly Ash and Red Mud as Strategies for Sustainable Acid Mine Drainage Management. Minerals. 2020; 10(8):707. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keller, Viktoria; Stopić, Srećko; Xakalashe, Buhle; Ma, Yiqian; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Mwewa, Brian; Simate, Geoffrey S.; Friedrich, Bernd. 2020. "Effectiveness of Fly Ash and Red Mud as Strategies for Sustainable Acid Mine Drainage Management" Minerals 10, no. 8: 707. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080707

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