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Open AccessArticle

Genesis of Two Types of Carbonaceous Material Associated with Gold Mineralization in the Bumo Deposit, Hainan Province, South China

by 1,2, 1,2,*, 1,2,*, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2 and 1,2
1
State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
2
School of Earth Sciences, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080708
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ore Genesis and Metamorphism: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Isotopes)
Carbonaceous material (CM) is common in meta-sediments and is generally interpreted to be intimately associated with gold mineralization. For the Bumo deposit in Hainan Province, South China, CM is mainly hosted by greenschist facies—to amphibolite-facies metamophic rocks of the Paleo—to the Mesoproterozoic Baoban Group, and by auriferous veins which could be used as an important gold prospecting indicator. However, the genesis of CM and its relationship with gold mineralization are still unclear. From the field work and thin section observations two types of CM occur, i.e., layered and veinlet. The layered CM occurred in CM-bearing black shales, up to meters thick, and prevails in the deposit. More importantly, Au-bearing sulfides are commonly distributed along the boundary between the quartz veins and layered CM. In contrast, the veinlet CM, co-precipitated with native gold and sulfides, has the thickness of micro- to centi-meters, and these thin veins occur in quartz veins and hydrothermally altered rocks. In addition, layered CM has a stringy shape and laminate structure, while veinlet CM occurs as isometric particles based on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The Raman carbonaceous material geothermometer indicates that layered CM with a high maturity is formed at elevated temperatures of 400–550 °C, consistent with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. In contrast, veinlet CM with a low maturity is formed at 200–350 °C and generally consistent with gold mineralization. In addition, layered CM has δ13C values ranging from −30 to −20%, demonstrating a biogenic origin. Consequently, it is interpreted that layered CM is formed by a pre-ore metamorphic event during Caledonian, and its reducing nature promotes gold precipitation via destabilization of aqueous Au complexes or facilitating sulfidation. Veinlet CM is of hydrothermal origin, and its precipitation modified the chemical conditions of ore fluids, leading to the destabilization of Au complexes, which therefore are favorable for mineralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonaceous material; Raman geothermometer; Au; gold deposit; Hainan carbonaceous material; Raman geothermometer; Au; gold deposit; Hainan
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    Description: This supplementary files are used for data support of article "Genesis of two types of carbonaceous material and associated with gold mineralization in the Bumo deposit, Hainan Province, South China".
MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, Z.; Deng, T.; Xu, D.; Li, Z.; Zou, S.; Li, L.; Xu, K.; Hai, Y.; Ma, W. Genesis of Two Types of Carbonaceous Material Associated with Gold Mineralization in the Bumo Deposit, Hainan Province, South China. Minerals 2020, 10, 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080708

AMA Style

Ding Z, Deng T, Xu D, Li Z, Zou S, Li L, Xu K, Hai Y, Ma W. Genesis of Two Types of Carbonaceous Material Associated with Gold Mineralization in the Bumo Deposit, Hainan Province, South China. Minerals. 2020; 10(8):708. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080708

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Zhengpeng; Deng, Teng; Xu, Deru; Li, Zenghua; Zou, Shaohao; Li, Lirong; Xu, Ke; Hai, Yan; Ma, Wen. 2020. "Genesis of Two Types of Carbonaceous Material Associated with Gold Mineralization in the Bumo Deposit, Hainan Province, South China" Minerals 10, no. 8: 708. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080708

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