# A Design of Multi-Purpose Image-Based QR Code

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Related Works

## 3. The Proposed Method

#### 3.1. The Binary Lighting Matrix Generating Stage

_{ij}= 0.299R

_{ij}+ 0.587G

_{ij}+ 0.114B

_{ij}

_{ij}, G

_{ij}, and B

_{ij}are the red, green and blue values of the color image at (i, j) position.

_{u,v}in the host image H, the central luminance l can be computed by the following equation, where 1 ≤ u ≤ m, 1 ≤ v ≤ m. The binary lighting matrix M is then shown as follows.

_{x}is a Gaussian distribution, so $\sum}_{x\in {C}_{u,v}}{G}_{x}=1$ and

#### 3.2. The QR Code Embedding Stage

_{i,j}]

_{(n/m)×(n/m)}be a block of the host image. The adjusted block C = [${c}_{i,j}^{\prime}$]

_{(n/m)×(n/m)}of the image-based QR code is defined as follows.

_{k}is computed by the following equation.

_{i}) is the weight of region r

_{i}and D

_{r}(r

_{k}, r

_{l}) is the color distance between two regions. Normally, the bigger region has the higher weight, and the color distance between two regions r

_{k}and r

_{l}is defined as:

_{a,b}) is the probability of the color c

_{a,b}among all n

_{a}colors in the region r

_{a}, and D(c

_{k,i},c

_{l,j}) is the distance between two colors in the RGB color space.

_{i,j}]

_{(n/m)×(n/m)}of the host image. Let P be the saliency map of the host image. The readjusted block of the image-based QR code ${C}^{\u2033}$ = [${c}_{i,j}^{\u2033}$] is defined as follows.

#### 3.3. The Host Image Embedding Stage

_{i,j},

#### 3.4. The Binary Image Embedding Stage

_{i,j}]

_{n}

_{×n}. Let B = [b

_{i,j}]

_{n}

_{×n}of the binary image. The share can be generated by the following equation.

_{i,j}]

_{n}

_{×n}to be a stego-image L’ = [${l}_{i,j}^{\prime}$]

_{n}

_{×n}, named as public share, by the following equation.

## 4. Experimental Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**(

**a**) the generated QR code (

**b**) original image (

**c**) image-based QR code (

**d**) the recovered image.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) the encoding process (

**b**) the decoding process (

**c**) the embedding processes shown with generated images.

**Figure 4.**The generated image-based QR-code of Wakahara et al. [13].

**Figure 5.**The generated image-based QR-code of Fang et al. [18].

**Figure 6.**The generated art QR-code of You et al. [19].

**Figure 9.**(

**a**–

**d**) The image-based QR codes with embedding corresponding host images, (

**e**–

**h**) Corresponding recovered images.

**Figure 10.**(

**a**) a binary color image (

**b**–

**e**) the stego-images that embed the public shares, (

**f**–

**i**) the results taking picture from the printed images of Figure 9a–d, respectively, (

**j**–

**m**) the solved binary color images from the results (

**f**–

**i**).

**Figure 11.**The generated image-based QR code by (

**a**) Wakahara et al. [13] and (

**b**) the proposed method.

**Figure 12.**The comparison between the generated image-based QR code of (

**a**) Fang et al. [18] and (

**b**) the one of the proposed method.

**Figure 13.**The comparison between the generated image-based QR code of (

**a**) You et al. [19] and (

**b**) the one of the proposed method. (

**c**) the original image.

**Table 3.**The image quality of picturing result from the printed images of Figure 10f–i.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Chen, S.-K.; Ti, Y.-W.
A Design of Multi-Purpose Image-Based QR Code. *Symmetry* **2021**, *13*, 2446.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13122446

**AMA Style**

Chen S-K, Ti Y-W.
A Design of Multi-Purpose Image-Based QR Code. *Symmetry*. 2021; 13(12):2446.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13122446

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Chen, Shang-Kuan, and Yen-Wu Ti.
2021. "A Design of Multi-Purpose Image-Based QR Code" *Symmetry* 13, no. 12: 2446.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13122446