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Article

Assessing and Prioritizing the Climate Change Policy Objectives for Sustainable Development in Pakistan

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College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China
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School of Business and Economics, Westminster International University in Tashkent, Tashkent 100047, Uzbekistan
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Department of Computer Science, Bahria University, Karachi 75260, Pakistan
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Department of Computer Science, Sindh University Campus, Larkana 77230, Pakistan
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Higher Education Department (HED), Government of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Punjab, Pakistan
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Department of Economics, Government Postgraduate College Kot Sultan, Kot Sultan, Layyah 31650, Punjab, Pakistan
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Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Layyah Campus, Layyah 31200, Punjab, Pakistan
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School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(8), 1203; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081203
Received: 28 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 22 July 2020
The world is facing the observable and direct impacts of climate change in the shape of extreme weather events, irregular precipitation, glacial melt, sea-level rise, an asymmetric average temperature trends, higher oceanic temperatures, damage to natural ecosystems, and biodiversity. In 2015, collective wisdom stirred the global community to agree upon two unprecedented milestones in recent human history—the Paris agreement and sustainable development goals (SDGs). The twin global agreements set a platform for collective efforts to secure socio-economic and climatic sustainability. Pakistan also joined the board to put forth policy interventions for the mitigation and adaption of climate change risks to maintain symmetry between the environmental quality and economic development. The government of Pakistan (GOP) formulated the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP (2012)) and passed the Pakistan Climate Change Act (PCCA (2017)) to provide an impetus for the implementation of the NCCP. Yet, an appropriate assessment and prioritization of the objectives of the NCCP are indispensable for productive and effective policies to achieve the targets. This study serves this purpose by prioritizing the climate change policy objectives (CCPOs) based on symmetric principles, i.e., energy, transport, urban and town planning, industry, and agriculture as criteria, with 17 sub-criteria in total. The fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) results show that the energy sector is the most pivotal while implementing the NCCP. Energy production is the most critical area that needs mitigation policy intervention for shifting the energy mix of the economy from high-carbon to low-carbon energy. The fuzzy AHP analysis further revealed the railway, population and urbanization, air pollution, crop growing practices and techniques as the most important related to transport, urban planning, industry, and agriculture sub-criteria, respectively. The fuzzy VIseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) analysis showed the ranking of the CCPOs from high to low through the integration of policies, institutional capacity building, water security, natural resource management, natural disaster management, environmental financial structure development, and social sector development. The findings of the present research would be helpful for experts and policymakers to re-examine the NCCP and put forth action plans to achieve sustainable climate and SDGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change policy; mitigation; adaptation; sustainability; development; water management; sustainable development goals; decision criteria; fuzzy AHP-VIKOR climate change policy; mitigation; adaptation; sustainability; development; water management; sustainable development goals; decision criteria; fuzzy AHP-VIKOR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, W.; Tan, Q.; Shaikh, G.M.; Waqas, H.; Kanasro, N.A.; Ali, S.; Solangi, Y.A. Assessing and Prioritizing the Climate Change Policy Objectives for Sustainable Development in Pakistan. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1203. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081203

AMA Style

Ahmed W, Tan Q, Shaikh GM, Waqas H, Kanasro NA, Ali S, Solangi YA. Assessing and Prioritizing the Climate Change Policy Objectives for Sustainable Development in Pakistan. Symmetry. 2020; 12(8):1203. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081203

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Waqas, Qingmei Tan, Ghulam Muhammad Shaikh, Hamid Waqas, Nadeem Ahmed Kanasro, Sharafat Ali, and Yasir Ahmed Solangi. 2020. "Assessing and Prioritizing the Climate Change Policy Objectives for Sustainable Development in Pakistan" Symmetry 12, no. 8: 1203. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12081203

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