# Analysis Exploring the Uniformity of Flow Distribution in Multi-Channels for the Application of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{2}/m

^{3}[8]. The working conditions can be different depending on the range of applications. The maximum temperature can reach 900 °C, the working pressure can reach 60 MPa and the design life can even reach 30–60 years. Under the same heat transfer power, the volume of PCHE is only about 1/5 of the shell-and-tube heat exchangers [9]. Therefore, PCHE provides a new heat transfer method to achieve the future of the ship power system with characteristics of integration, miniaturization and high reliability.

## 2. Physical Problems and Mathematical Model

#### 2.1. Physical Problems

_{1}, r

_{2}, r

_{3}, r

_{4}, r

_{5}respectively.

#### 2.2. Assumptions

- (1)
- Flow is steady and isothermal, and fluid properties are independent of time;
- (2)
- Fluid density is dependent on the local temperature only, or is treated as a constant;
- (3)
- Fluid slip at the solid-fluid interfaces is neglected;
- (4)
- Thermo-physical properties of fluid are independent of temperature variations;
- (5)
- Body forces are caused only by gravity (i.e., magnetic, electrical, and other fields do not contribute to the body forces);
- (6)
- Newtonian fluid, incompressible flow and turbulent flow.

#### 2.3. Governing Equations

_{D}, C

_{1}, C

_{2}means the empirical constant.

#### 2.4. Boundary Conditions

**Inlet:**Velocity Inlet Boundary Condition

**Outlet:**Outflow Outlet Boundary Condition

#### 2.5. Numerical Details

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Grid Independence Check

#### 3.2. Analysis of Flow Maldistribution

_{i}and the average flow distribution nonuniformity in all PCHE channels S are defined as follows:

_{i}is used to characterize the flow distribution nonuniformity between different channels, S is used to characterize the total flow distribution nonuniformity of the heat exchanger, m

_{i}is the flow rate in the ith channel, m

_{a}is the average flow rate for one single channel and n is the number of channels.

#### 3.3. Flow Distribution Case

#### 3.4. Numbers of Spreader Plate

_{1}= r

_{2}= r

_{3}= r

_{4}= r

_{5}= 4b.

#### 3.5. Analysis of the Symmetry

#### 3.5.1. Structure Central Symmetry

#### 3.5.2. Channel Flow Field Symmetry

#### 3.5.3. Adjacent Channel Structure Symmetry

#### 3.6. Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Parameter | Value |
---|---|

Channel type | Square straight channel |

Number of channels | 33 |

Plate size | 300 mm × 200 mm |

Channel size | 2 mm × 1 mm |

Channel spacing | 1 mm |

Inlet and outlet width | 50 mm |

Working fluid | water |

Pressure | 0.3 MPa |

Inlet velocity | 0–40 m/s |

Cases | Parameters |
---|---|

1 | No spreader plate |

2 | r_{1} = 0, r_{2} = b, r_{3} = 2b, r_{4} = 3b, r_{5} = 4b |

3 | r_{1} = r_{2} = r_{3} = r_{4} =r_{5} = b |

4 | r_{1} = r_{2} = r_{3} = r_{4} = r_{5} = 4b |

Inlet velocity | 0–40 m/s |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ke, H.; Lin, Y.; Ke, Z.; Xiao, Q.; Wei, Z.; Chen, K.; Xu, H.
Analysis Exploring the Uniformity of Flow Distribution in Multi-Channels for the Application of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020314

**AMA Style**

Ke H, Lin Y, Ke Z, Xiao Q, Wei Z, Chen K, Xu H.
Analysis Exploring the Uniformity of Flow Distribution in Multi-Channels for the Application of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(2):314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020314

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ke, Hanbing, Yuansheng Lin, Zhiwu Ke, Qi Xiao, Zhiguo Wei, Kai Chen, and Huijin Xu.
2020. "Analysis Exploring the Uniformity of Flow Distribution in Multi-Channels for the Application of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers" *Symmetry* 12, no. 2: 314.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020314