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Review

Breaking Symmetry: Fluctuating Asymmetry and Geometric Morphometrics as Tools for Evaluating Developmental Instability under Diverse Agroecosystems

1
Laboratorio de Ecología y Morfometría Evolutiva, Centro de Investigación de Estudios Avanzados del Maule, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3466706, Chile
2
Department of Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Barrio Universitario S/N, Concepción 4030000, Chile
4
Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, Centre for Sustainable Ecosystem Solutions, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111789
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluctuating Asymmetry as a Measure of Stress)
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), in contrast with other asymmetries, is the bilateral asymmetry that represents small, random developmental differences between right and left sides. After nearly a century of using traditional morphometrics in the estimation of FA, geometric morphometrics (GM) now provides new insights into the use of FA as a tool, especially for assessing environmental and developmental stress. Thus, it will be possible to assess adaptation to various environmental stressors as particular triggers for unavoidable selection pressures. In this review, we describe measures of FA that use geometric morphometrics, and we include a flow chart of the methodology. We also describe how this combination (GM + FA) has been tested in several agroecosystems. Nutritional stress, temperature, chemical pollution, and population density are known stressors experienced by populations in agroecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluctuating asymmetry; environmental stress; geometric morphometrics; developmental instability fluctuating asymmetry; environmental stress; geometric morphometrics; developmental instability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benítez, H.A.; Lemic, D.; Villalobos-Leiva, A.; Bažok, R.; Órdenes-Claveria, R.; Pajač Živković, I.; Mikac, K.M. Breaking Symmetry: Fluctuating Asymmetry and Geometric Morphometrics as Tools for Evaluating Developmental Instability under Diverse Agroecosystems. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111789

AMA Style

Benítez HA, Lemic D, Villalobos-Leiva A, Bažok R, Órdenes-Claveria R, Pajač Živković I, Mikac KM. Breaking Symmetry: Fluctuating Asymmetry and Geometric Morphometrics as Tools for Evaluating Developmental Instability under Diverse Agroecosystems. Symmetry. 2020; 12(11):1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Benítez, Hugo A., Darija Lemic, Amado Villalobos-Leiva, Renata Bažok, Rodrigo Órdenes-Claveria, Ivana Pajač Živković, and Katarina M. Mikac. 2020. "Breaking Symmetry: Fluctuating Asymmetry and Geometric Morphometrics as Tools for Evaluating Developmental Instability under Diverse Agroecosystems" Symmetry 12, no. 11: 1789. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111789

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