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Revisiting a Negative Cosmological Constant from Low-Redshift Data

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3
The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21A, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Kavli Institute for Cosmology (KICC) and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(8), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11081035
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anomalies and Tensions of the Cosmic Microwave Background)
PDF [1561 KB, uploaded 10 August 2019]

Abstract

Persisting tensions between high-redshift and low-redshift cosmological observations suggest the dark energy sector of the Universe might be more complex than the positive cosmological constant of the Λ CDM model. Motivated by string theory, wherein symmetry considerations make consistent AdS backgrounds (i.e., maximally-symmetric spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant) ubiquitous, we explore a scenario where the dark energy sector consists of two components: a negative cosmological constant, with a dark energy component with equation of state w ϕ on top. We test the consistency of the model against low-redshift baryon acoustic oscillation and Type Ia supernovae distance measurements, assessing two alternative choices of distance anchors: the sound horizon at baryon drag determined by the Planck collaboration and the Hubble constant determined by the SH0ES program. We find no evidence for a negative cosmological constant and mild indications for an effective phantom dark energy component on top. A model comparison analysis reveals that the Λ CDM model is favoured over our negative cosmological constant model. While our results are inconclusive, should low-redshift tensions persist with future data, it would be worth reconsidering and further refining our toy negative cosmological constant model by considering realistic string constructions.
Keywords: negative cosmological constant; H0 tension; dark energy; low-redshift data; extended cosmological models negative cosmological constant; H0 tension; dark energy; low-redshift data; extended cosmological models
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Visinelli, L.; Vagnozzi, S.; Danielsson, U. Revisiting a Negative Cosmological Constant from Low-Redshift Data. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1035.

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