With the recent increase in precision of our cosmological datasets, measurements of
CDM model parameter provided by high- and low-redshift observations started to be in tension, i.e., the obtained values of such parameters were shown to be significantly different in a statistical sense. In this work we tackle the tension on the value of the Hubble parameter,
, and the weighted amplitude of matter fluctuations,
, obtained from local or low-redshift measurements and from cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. We combine the main approaches previously used in the literature by extending the cosmological model and accounting for extra systematic uncertainties. With such analysis we aim at exploring non standard cosmological models, implying deviation from a cosmological constant driven acceleration of the Universe expansion, in the presence of additional uncertainties in measurements. In more detail, we reconstruct the Dark Energy equation of state as a function of redshift, while we study the impact of type-Ia supernovae (SNIa) redshift-dependent astrophysical systematic effects on these tensions. We consider a SNIa intrinsic luminosity dependence on redshift due to the star formation rate in its environment, or the metallicity of the progenitor. We find that the
tensions can be significantly alleviated, or even removed, if we account for varying Dark Energy for SNIa and CMB data. However, the tensions remain when we add baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data into the analysis, even after the addition of extra SNIa systematic uncertainties. This points towards the need of either new physics beyond late-time Dark Energy, or other unaccounted systematic effects (particulary in BAO measurements), to fully solve the present tensions.
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