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Open AccessArticle

Energy Efficiency and Coverage Trade-Off in 5G for Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Cellular Networks

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Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea
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Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Engineering, College of Engineering, Covenant University, Canaanland, Ota, Ogun State 740005, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11030408
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology and Its Applications 2018)
Recently, cellular networks’ energy efficiency has garnered research interest from academia and industry because of its considerable economic and ecological effects in the near future. This study proposes an approach to cooperation between the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and next-generation wireless networks. The fifth-generation (5G) wireless network aims to negotiate a trade-off between wireless network performance (sustaining the demand for high speed packet rates during busy traffic periods) and energy efficiency (EE) by alternating 5G base stations’ (BSs) switching off/on based on the traffic instantaneous load condition and, at the same time, guaranteeing network coverage for mobile subscribers by the remaining active LTE BSs. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was used to determine the optimum criteria of the active LTE BSs (transmission power, total antenna gain, spectrum/channel bandwidth, and signal-to-interference-noise ratio) that achieves maximum coverage for the entire area during the switch-off session of 5G BSs. Simulation results indicate that the energy savings can reach 3.52 kW per day, with a maximum data rate of up to 22.4 Gbps at peak traffic hours and 80.64 Mbps during a 5G BS switched-off session along with guaranteed full coverage over the entire region by the remaining active LTE BSs. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy efficiency; energy harvesting; eco-friendly networks; BSs’ switching off/on; green BSs energy efficiency; energy harvesting; eco-friendly networks; BSs’ switching off/on; green BSs
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Alsharif, M.H.; Kelechi, A.H.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.H. Energy Efficiency and Coverage Trade-Off in 5G for Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Cellular Networks. Symmetry 2019, 11, 408.

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