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Symmetry 2018, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10030060

Deep Learning as a Tool for Automatic Segmentation of Corneal Endothelium Images

Institute of Informatics, Department of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
The article is solely my authorship.
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Medical Image Segmentation)
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Abstract

The automatic analysis of the state of the corneal endothelium is of much interest in ophthalmology. Up till now, several manual and semi-automatic methods have been introduced, but the need of fully-automatic segmentation of cells in the endothelium is still in search. This work addresses the problem of automatic delineation of cells in the corneal endothelium images and suggests to use the convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify between cell center, cell body, and cell border in order to achieve precise segmentation. Additionally, a method to automatically select and split merged cells is given. In order to skeletonize the result, the best-fit method is used. The achieved outcomes are compared to manual annotations in order to define the mutual overlapping. The Dice index, Jaccard coefficient, modified Hausdorff distance, and several other metrics for mosaic overlapping are used. As a final check-up, the visual inspection is shown. The performed experiments revealed the best architecture for CNN. The correctness and precision of the segmentation were evaluated on Endothelial Cell “Alizarine” dataset. According to the Dice index and Jaccard coefficient, the automatically achieved cell delineation overlaps the original one with 93% precision. While modified Hausdorff distance shows 0.14 pixel distance, proving very high accuracy. These findings are confirmed by other metrics and also supported by presented visual inspection of achieved segmentations. To conclude, the methodology to achieve fully-automatic delineation of cell boundaries in the corneal endothelium images was presented. The segmentation obtained as a result of pixel classification with CNN proved very high precision. View Full-Text
Keywords: corneal endothelium; segmentation; classification; convolutional neural network; distance measures corneal endothelium; segmentation; classification; convolutional neural network; distance measures
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Nurzynska, K. Deep Learning as a Tool for Automatic Segmentation of Corneal Endothelium Images. Symmetry 2018, 10, 60.

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