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Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Different Matrices: Occurrence, Pathways, and Treatment Processes

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Kongju National University, Cheonan City 31080, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Urszula Kotowska and Joanna Karpińska
Water 2021, 13(9), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091159
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 20 April 2021 / Accepted: 20 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Aspects of Occurrence and Removal of Emerging Pollutants)
The procedures for analyzing pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are typically tedious and expensive and thus, it is necessary to synthesize all available information from previously conducted research. An extensive collection of PPCP data from the published literature was compiled to determine the occurrence, pathways, and the effectiveness of current treatment technologies for the removal of PPCPs in water and wastewater. Approximately 90% of the compiled published papers originated from Asia, Europe, and the North American regions. The incomplete removal of PPCPs in different water and wastewater treatment processes was widely reported, thus resulting in the occurrence of PPCP compounds in various environmental compartments. Caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, triclosan, and triclocarban were among the most commonly reported compounds detected in water and solid matrices. Trace concentrations of PPCPs were also detected on plants and animal tissues, indicating the bioaccumulative properties of some PPCP compounds. A significant lack of studies regarding the presence of PPCPs in animal and plant samples was identified in the review. Furthermore, there were still knowledge gaps on the ecotoxicity, sub-lethal effects, and effective treatment processes for PPCPs. The knowledge gaps identified in this study can be used to devise a more effective research paradigm and guidelines for PPCP management. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging pollutants; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; treatment technologies emerging pollutants; pharmaceuticals and personal care products; treatment technologies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes, N.J.D.G.; Geronimo, F.K.F.; Yano, K.A.V.; Guerra, H.B.; Kim, L.-H. Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Different Matrices: Occurrence, Pathways, and Treatment Processes. Water 2021, 13, 1159. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091159

AMA Style

Reyes NJDG, Geronimo FKF, Yano KAV, Guerra HB, Kim L-H. Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Different Matrices: Occurrence, Pathways, and Treatment Processes. Water. 2021; 13(9):1159. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reyes, Nash J.D.G., Franz K.F. Geronimo, Kimberly A.V. Yano, Heidi B. Guerra, and Lee-Hyung Kim. 2021. "Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Different Matrices: Occurrence, Pathways, and Treatment Processes" Water 13, no. 9: 1159. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091159

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