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Open AccessReview

The Use of Constructed Wetland for Mitigating Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Agricultural Runoff: A Review

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School of Architecture and Art, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
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Department of Building, National University of Singapore, SDE2, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566, Singapore
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College of Landscape and Art Design, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
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Changsha Planning and Design Survey Research Institute, Changsha 410007, China
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Powerchina Huadong Engineering Corporation Limited, Hangzhou 311122, China
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College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
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Department of Geography and Environment Science, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AB, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos S. Akratos
Water 2021, 13(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040476
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
The loss of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers in agricultural runoff is a global environmental problem, attracting worldwide attention. In the last decades, the constructed wetland has been increasingly used for mitigating the loss of nitrogen and phosphate from agricultural runoff, while the substrate, plants, and wetland structure design remain far from clearly understood. In this paper, the optimum substrates and plant species were identified by reviewing their treatment capacity from the related studies. Specifically, the top three suitable substrates are gravel, zeolite, and slag. In terms of the plant species, emergent plants are the most widely used in the constructed wetlands. Eleocharis dulcis, Typha orientalis, and Scirpus validus are the top three optimum emergent plant species. Submerged plants (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, and Vallisneria natans), free-floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor), and floating-leaved plants (Nymphaea tetragona and Trapa bispinosa) are also promoted. Moreover, the site selection methods for constructed wetland were put forward. Because the existing research results have not reached an agreement on the controversial issue, more studies are still needed to draw a clear conclusion of effective structure design of constructed wetlands. This review has provided some recommendations for substrate, plant species, and site selections for the constructed wetlands to reduce nutrients from agricultural runoff. View Full-Text
Keywords: substrates; plants; site selection; construction substrates; plants; site selection; construction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Zheng, B.; Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Xia, Q.; Wang, H.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, H. The Use of Constructed Wetland for Mitigating Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Agricultural Runoff: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040476

AMA Style

Li J, Zheng B, Chen X, Li Z, Xia Q, Wang H, Yang Y, Zhou Y, Yang H. The Use of Constructed Wetland for Mitigating Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Agricultural Runoff: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(4):476. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040476

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jiayu; Zheng, Bohong; Chen, Xiao; Li, Zhe; Xia, Qi; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yuan; Zhou, Yaoyu; Yang, Hong. 2021. "The Use of Constructed Wetland for Mitigating Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Agricultural Runoff: A Review" Water 13, no. 4: 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040476

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