The objective of this paper is to present an overview of state regulations and guidelines for wastewater reuse for irrigation. Land application of wastewater in the U.S. began in the 19th century when it was considered the safest and best method for wastewater disposal. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27 states have regulations for wastewater reuse and 11 states have guidelines for reuse. Some states have no regulations or guidelines for wastewater reuse. For urban wastewater reuse for irrigation where public access is not restricted and for irrigation of food crops, many of the states require additional levels of treatment beyond secondary treatment, which may include oxidation, coagulation, and filtration and high levels of disinfection. California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida were the earliest states to establish water reuse programs and account for the majority of wastewater reuse for irrigation in the U.S. Several of the challenges to increase wastewater reuse are water rights in the western states and a lack of funding for new projects.
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