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Design of Land Application Systems for Water Reuse
Article

State Regulations and Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the U.S.

University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Academic Editor: Carmen Teodosiu
Water 2021, 13(20), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202818
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation)
The objective of this paper is to present an overview of state regulations and guidelines for wastewater reuse for irrigation. Land application of wastewater in the U.S. began in the 19th century when it was considered the safest and best method for wastewater disposal. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 27 states have regulations for wastewater reuse and 11 states have guidelines for reuse. Some states have no regulations or guidelines for wastewater reuse. For urban wastewater reuse for irrigation where public access is not restricted and for irrigation of food crops, many of the states require additional levels of treatment beyond secondary treatment, which may include oxidation, coagulation, and filtration and high levels of disinfection. California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida were the earliest states to establish water reuse programs and account for the majority of wastewater reuse for irrigation in the U.S. Several of the challenges to increase wastewater reuse are water rights in the western states and a lack of funding for new projects. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater treatment; irrigation; regulations; wastewater reclamation; water quality; California wastewater treatment; irrigation; regulations; wastewater reclamation; water quality; California
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ritter, W. State Regulations and Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the U.S. Water 2021, 13, 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202818

AMA Style

Ritter W. State Regulations and Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the U.S. Water. 2021; 13(20):2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ritter, William. 2021. "State Regulations and Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in the U.S." Water 13, no. 20: 2818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202818

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