Climate change can affect different drivers of flooding in low-lying coastal areas of the world, challenging the design and planning of communities and infrastructure. The concurrent occurrence of multiple flood drivers such as high river flows and extreme sea levels can aggravate such impacts and result in catastrophic damages. In this study, the individual and compound effects of riverine and coastal flooding are investigated at Stephenville Crossing located in the coastal-estuarine region of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. The impacts of climate change on flood extents and depths and the uncertainties associated with temporal patterns of storms, intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) projections, spatial resolution, and emission scenarios are assessed. A hydrologic model and a 2D hydraulic model are set up and calibrated to simulate the flood inundation for the historical (1976–2005) as well as the near future (2041–2070) and far future (2071–2100) periods under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Future storm events are generated based on projected IDF curves from convection-permitting Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) climate model simulations, using SCS, Huff, and alternating block design storm methods. The results are compared with simulations based on projected IDF curves derived from statistically downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs). Both drivers of flooding are projected to intensify in the future, resulting in higher risks of flooding in the study area. Compound riverine and coastal flooding results in more severe inundation, affecting the communities on the coastline and the estuary area. Results show that the uncertainties associated with storm hyetographs are considerable, which indicate the importance of accurate representation of storm patterns. Further, simulations based on projected WRF-IDF curves show higher risks of flooding compared to the ones associated with GCM-IDFs.
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