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Coastal Structures as Beach Erosion Control and Sea Level Rise Adaptation in Malaysia: A Review

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National Water Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Lot 5377, Jalan Putra Permai, Rizab Melayu Sungai Kuyoh, Seri Kembangan 43300, Malaysia
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School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia
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Center for Coastal and Ocean Engineering (COEI), Research Institute of Sustainable Environment (RISE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia
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Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Panagiotis Prinos and Panagiota Galiatsatou
Water 2021, 13(13), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131741
Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 20 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate Change on Coasts and Coastal Structures)
The shoreline of Malaysia is exposed to threats of coastal erosion and a rise of sea level. The National Coastal Erosion Study, 2015 reported that 15% of an 8840 km shoreline is currently eroding, where one-third of those falls under the critical and significant categories that require structural protection. The Study of Sea Level Rise in Malaysia, 2017 presented a sea-level increase of 0.67–0.74 mm on average yearly. This study reviewed selected coastal protection structures along the shoreline of Malaysia as an erosion control and sea-level rise adaptation based on coastal management strategies. Hard structures such as rock revetment and breakwater are commonly used as erosion protection systems in the “hold the line” strategy. Increased platform level of seawalls and earth bunds, considered as an “adaptation” approach, are effective in erosion protection and are adaptive to sea-level rise. Mangrove replanting is suitable as a “limited intervention” approach in minimizing the long-term impact of both threats. However, offshore breakwater, groyne, and geotextile tubes are solely for protection purposes and are not as effective for sea-level rise adaptation. As the sea level is continuously increasing, their function as coastal protection will also become less effective. In summary, this comprehensive review on coastal protection in Malaysia will benefit the related agencies on the future assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal erosion; sea-level rise; coastal protection structures; adaptation; Malaysia coastal erosion; sea-level rise; coastal protection structures; adaptation; Malaysia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed Rashidi, A.H.; Jamal, M.H.; Hassan, M.Z.; Mohd Sendek, S.S.; Mohd Sopie, S.L.; Abd Hamid, M.R. Coastal Structures as Beach Erosion Control and Sea Level Rise Adaptation in Malaysia: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131741

AMA Style

Mohamed Rashidi AH, Jamal MH, Hassan MZ, Mohd Sendek SS, Mohd Sopie SL, Abd Hamid MR. Coastal Structures as Beach Erosion Control and Sea Level Rise Adaptation in Malaysia: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(13):1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohamed Rashidi, Ahmad H., Mohamad H. Jamal, Mohamad Z. Hassan, Siti S. Mohd Sendek, Syazana L. Mohd Sopie, and Mohd R. Abd Hamid 2021. "Coastal Structures as Beach Erosion Control and Sea Level Rise Adaptation in Malaysia: A Review" Water 13, no. 13: 1741. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131741

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