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Article

eNaBLe, an On-Line Tool to Evaluate Natural Background Levels in Groundwater Bodies

IRSA-CNR, Water Research Institute—National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29.300, PB 10, 00015 Monterotondo (Rome), Italy
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Water 2021, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010074
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 24 December 2020 / Accepted: 27 December 2020 / Published: 31 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Background Levels in Groundwater)
Inorganic compounds in groundwater may derive from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The assessment of natural background levels (NBLs) is often useful to distinguish these sources. The approaches for the NBLs assessment can be classified as geochemical (e.g., the well-known pre-selection method) or statistical, the latter involving the application of statistical procedures to separate natural and anthropogenic populations. National Guidelines for the NBLs assessment in groundwater have been published in Italy (ISPRA 155/2017), based mainly on the pre-selection method. The Guidelines propose different assessment paths according to the sample size in spatial/temporal dimension and the type of the distribution of the pre-selected dataset, taking also into account the redox conditions of the groundwater body. The obtained NBLs are labelled with a different confidence level in function of number of total observations/monitoring sites, extension of groundwater body and aquifer type (confined or unconfined). To support the implementation of the Guidelines, the on-line tool evaluation of natural background levels (eNaBLe), written in PHP and using MySQL as DBMS (DataBase Management System), has been developed. The main goal of this paper is to describe the functioning of eNaBLe and test the tool on a case study in central Italy. We calculated the NBLs of As, F, Fe and Mn in the southern portion of the Mounts Vulsini groundwater body, within the volcanic province of Latium (Central Italy), also separating the reducing and oxidizing facies. Specific results aside, this study allowed to verify the functioning and possible improvements of the online tool and to identify some criticalities in the procedure NBLs assessment at the groundwater body scale View Full-Text
Keywords: natural background; groundwater body; conceptual model; preselection; nitrates; confidence level natural background; groundwater body; conceptual model; preselection; nitrates; confidence level
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parrone, D.; Frollini, E.; Preziosi, E.; Ghergo, S. eNaBLe, an On-Line Tool to Evaluate Natural Background Levels in Groundwater Bodies. Water 2021, 13, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010074

AMA Style

Parrone D, Frollini E, Preziosi E, Ghergo S. eNaBLe, an On-Line Tool to Evaluate Natural Background Levels in Groundwater Bodies. Water. 2021; 13(1):74. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parrone, Daniele, Eleonora Frollini, Elisabetta Preziosi, and Stefano Ghergo. 2021. "eNaBLe, an On-Line Tool to Evaluate Natural Background Levels in Groundwater Bodies" Water 13, no. 1: 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010074

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