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Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Disparities in the United States in Relation to Heavy Metals and Biological Contaminants

by 1,2, 1 and 1,*
1
Department of Chemistry, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040967
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 29 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Drinking water quality can be compromised by heavy metals, such as copper and lead. If consumed raw, water can pose a health burden to the general population. In this study, the roles of heavy metals and biological contaminants have been explored in determining the quality of drinking water available to consumers of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States. In an effort to gain an understanding of possible social disparities in drinking water, a quantitative analysis was conducted to examine whether vulnerable populations are disproportionately impacted by drinking water contaminants. Our data indicated that states with middle-average household incomes were statistically more susceptible to higher levels of lead in drinking water. The states with higher-average household incomes demonstrated lower copper levels compared to those with lower incomes, although a direct correlation was not present. No statistical significance was observed in the total coliform and turbidity levels in correlation to the average household incomes. In general, more violations in water quality were prevalent in middle-income states when compared to the states with lower-average household incomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; water contaminants; lead; copper; turbidity; total coliform; socioeconomic backgrounds; average household incomes drinking water; water contaminants; lead; copper; turbidity; total coliform; socioeconomic backgrounds; average household incomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karim, K.; Guha, S.; Beni, R. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Disparities in the United States in Relation to Heavy Metals and Biological Contaminants. Water 2020, 12, 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040967

AMA Style

Karim K, Guha S, Beni R. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Disparities in the United States in Relation to Heavy Metals and Biological Contaminants. Water. 2020; 12(4):967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040967

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karim, Kaleh, Sujata Guha, and Ryan Beni. 2020. "Comparative Analysis of Water Quality Disparities in the United States in Relation to Heavy Metals and Biological Contaminants" Water 12, no. 4: 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040967

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