Using Wastewater in Irrigation: The Effects on Infiltration Process in a Clayey Soil
2. Materials: Field Experiments
2.1. Experimental Site
2.2. Measurements of Hydraulic Properties
4. Results and Discussion
- The continuous usage of TWW for irrigation determines a lower capacity of water drainage in unsaturated conditions mainly due to the clogging process of the smaller pores by the accumulation of suspended sediments. This leads to a significant decrease of the S parameter in 2YR and 5YR plots, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity linked with the connectivity of larger pores is only weakly affected.
- The simulations by the Philip model with the decreased values of sorptivity have highlighted reductions of cumulative infiltration in a plot with TWW treatment. For an irrigation pattern with a duration of 1.5 h, the reduction of absorbable water amount with respect to 0YR plot has been found equal to 40% and 47% in 2YR and 5YR plots, respectively, with irrigation duration equal to 3 h the percentages reduce to 38% and 44%, respectively. Equivalent increases of runoff have to be expected if the irrigation water amount remains the same. Hence, the percentage reductions of cumulative infiltration have been here interpreted as water amounts that can be saved for that planned irrigation pattern and have been considered a measure of the gained irrigation efficiency.
- The above-defined advantages of TWW usage (in terms of irrigation efficiency) slightly decrease with increasing irrigation duration (30 min up to 180 min) ranging from 50% to 44% and from 48% to 38% for the 5YR and 2YR plots, respectively. Anyway, the irrigation efficiency is significant and can be relevant in arid and semi-arid areas.
Conflicts of Interest
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Albalasmeh, A.A.; Gharaibeh, M.A.; Alghzawi, M.Z.; Morbidelli, R.; Saltalippi, C.; Ghezzehei, T.A.; Flammini, A. Using Wastewater in Irrigation: The Effects on Infiltration Process in a Clayey Soil. Water 2020, 12, 968. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040968
Albalasmeh AA, Gharaibeh MA, Alghzawi MZ, Morbidelli R, Saltalippi C, Ghezzehei TA, Flammini A. Using Wastewater in Irrigation: The Effects on Infiltration Process in a Clayey Soil. Water. 2020; 12(4):968. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040968Chicago/Turabian Style
Albalasmeh, Ammar A., Mamoun A. Gharaibeh, Ma’in Z. Alghzawi, Renato Morbidelli, Carla Saltalippi, Teamrat A. Ghezzehei, and Alessia Flammini. 2020. "Using Wastewater in Irrigation: The Effects on Infiltration Process in a Clayey Soil" Water 12, no. 4: 968. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040968