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Article

Comparison of Soil EC Values from Methods Based on 1:1 and 1:5 Soil to Water Ratios and ECe from Saturated Paste Extract Based Method

Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
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Water 2020, 12(4), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041010
Received: 7 March 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 31 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of the Soil Water Movement in Irrigated Agriculture)
The present study investigates the effect of three different methods of obtaining 1:1 and 1:5 soil-over-water mass ratios (soil:water) extracts for soil electrical conductivity (EC) measurements (EC1:1, EC1:5). On the same soil samples, also the electrical conductivity of the saturated paste extract (ECe) was determined and the relationships between ECe and each of the three of EC1:1 and EC1:5 values were examined. The soil samples used were collected from three areas over Greece (Laconia, Argolida and Kos) and had ECe values ranging from 0.611 to 25.9 dS m−1. From the results, it was shown that for soils with ECe < 3 dS m−1 the higher EC values were obtained by the method where the suspension remained at rest for 23 hours and then shaken mechanically for 1 h. On the contrary, no differences were observed among the three methods for soils with ECe > 3 dS m−1. Also, in the case of EC1:5, the optimal times for equilibration were much longer when ECe < 3 dS m−1. Across all soils, the relationships between ECe and each of three methods of obtaining EC1:1 and EC1:5 were strongly linear (0.953 < R2 < 0.991 and 0.63 < RMSE < 1.27 dS m−1). Taking into account the threshold of ECe = 3 dS m−1, different ECe = f(EC1:5) linear relationships were obtained. Although the linear model gave high values of R2 and RMSE for ECe < 3 dS m−1, the quadratic model resulted in better R2 and RMSE values for all methods examined. Correspondingly, in the 1:1 method, two of the three methods used exhibited similar slope values of the linear relationships independent of ECe value (ECe < 3 or ECe > 3 dS m−1), while one method (23 h rest and then shaken mechanically for 1 hour) showed significant differences in the slopes of the linear relationships between the two ranges of ECe. View Full-Text
Keywords: saturated soil paste; electrical conductivity; salinity saturated soil paste; electrical conductivity; salinity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kargas, G.; Londra, P.; Sgoubopoulou, A. Comparison of Soil EC Values from Methods Based on 1:1 and 1:5 Soil to Water Ratios and ECe from Saturated Paste Extract Based Method. Water 2020, 12, 1010. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041010

AMA Style

Kargas G, Londra P, Sgoubopoulou A. Comparison of Soil EC Values from Methods Based on 1:1 and 1:5 Soil to Water Ratios and ECe from Saturated Paste Extract Based Method. Water. 2020; 12(4):1010. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kargas, George, Paraskevi Londra, and Anastasia Sgoubopoulou. 2020. "Comparison of Soil EC Values from Methods Based on 1:1 and 1:5 Soil to Water Ratios and ECe from Saturated Paste Extract Based Method" Water 12, no. 4: 1010. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041010

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