Given the fact that researchers require more specific spatial rainfall information for storm flood calculation, hydrological risk assessment, and water budget estimates, there is a growing need to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of rainfall accurately. This paper provides insight into rainfall spatial heterogeneity in urban areas based on statistical analysis methods. An ensemble of short-duration (3-h) extreme rainfall events for four megacities in China are extracted from a high-resolution gridded rainfall dataset (resolution of 30 min in time, 0.1° × 0.1° in space). Under the heterogeneity framework using Moran’s I, LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association), and semi-variance, the multi-scale spatial variability of extreme rainfall is identified and assessed in Shanghai (SH), Beijing (BJ), Guangzhou (GZ), and Shenzhen (SZ). The results show that there is a pronounced spatial heterogeneity of short-duration extreme rainfall in the four cities. Heterogeneous characteristics of rainfall within location, range, and directions are closely linked to the different urban growth in four cities. The results also suggest that the spatial distribution of rainfall cannot be neglected in the design storm in urban areas. This paper constitutes a useful contribution to quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity and supports an improved understanding of rainfall/flood frequency analysis in megacities.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited