Next Article in Journal
Distribution Coefficient and Metal Pollution Index in Water and Sediments: Proposal of a New Index for Ecological Risk Assessment of Metals
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Advanced Treatment Technologies on the Energy Use in Satellite Water Reuse Plants
Previous Article in Journal
An Improved Relative Permeability Model for Gas-Water Displacement in Fractal Porous Media
Previous Article in Special Issue
Integrated Solutions for the Water-Energy-Land Nexus: Are Global Models Rising to the Challenge?
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

An Analysis of Energy Consumption and the Use of Renewables for a Small Drinking Water Treatment Plant

1
Department of Civil Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, University Road Karachi, Karachi City 75270, Pakistan
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Construction, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010028
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Assessment of the Water–Energy–Land Nexus)
One of the pressing issues currently faced by the water industry is incorporating sustainability considerations into design practice and reducing the carbon emissions of energy-intensive processes. Water treatment, an indispensable step for safeguarding public health, is an energy-intensive process. The purpose of this study was to analyze the energy consumption of an existing drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), then conduct a modeling study for using photovoltaics (PVs) to offset that energy consumption, and thus reduce emissions. The selected plant, located in southwestern United States, treats 0.425 m3 of groundwater per second by utilizing the processes of coagulation, filtration, and disinfection. Based on the energy consumption individually determined for each unit process (validated using the DWTP’s data), the DWTP was sized for PVs (as a modeling study). The results showed that the dependency of a DWTP on the traditional electric grid could be greatly reduced by the use of PVs. The largest consumption of energy was associated with the pumping operations, corresponding to 150.6 Wh m−3 for the booster pumps to covey water to the storage tanks, while the energy intensity of the water treatment units was found to be 3.1 Wh m−3. A PV system with a 1.5 MW capacity with battery storage (30 MWh) was found to have a positive net present value and a levelized cost of electricity of 3.1 cents kWh−1. A net reduction in the carbon emissions was found as 950 and 570 metric tons of CO2-eq year−1 due to the PV-based design, with and without battery storage, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; solar energy; photovoltaics; drinking water treatment; techno-economic assessment; carbon emissions energy consumption; solar energy; photovoltaics; drinking water treatment; techno-economic assessment; carbon emissions
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bukhary, S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S. An Analysis of Energy Consumption and the Use of Renewables for a Small Drinking Water Treatment Plant. Water 2020, 12, 28.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop