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Article

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Quality in the Bystrzyca River Basin, Poland

1
Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Leszczyńskiego 7, 20-069 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010190
Received: 1 December 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
The aim of the study was to analyze the results of surface water quality tests carried out in the Bystrzyca river basin. The study was conducted over four years in four seasons. The following chemometric techniques were used for the purposes of statistical analyses: the principal component analysis with factor analysis (PCA/FA), the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the discriminant analysis (DA). The analyses allowed for determining the temporal variability in water quality between the seasons. The best water quality was recorded in summer and the worst in autumn. The analyses did not provide a clear assessment of the spatial variability of water quality in the river basin. Pollution from wastewater treatment plants and soil tillage had a similar effect on water quality. The tested samples were characterized by very high electrolytic conductivity, suspended solids and P-PO4 concentrations and the water quality did not meet the standards of good ecological status. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial and temporal variability; water quality; Bystrzyca river basin; chemometric technique spatial and temporal variability; water quality; Bystrzyca river basin; chemometric technique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grzywna, A.; Bronowicka-Mielniczuk, U. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Quality in the Bystrzyca River Basin, Poland. Water 2020, 12, 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010190

AMA Style

Grzywna A, Bronowicka-Mielniczuk U. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Quality in the Bystrzyca River Basin, Poland. Water. 2020; 12(1):190. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010190

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grzywna, Antoni, and Urszula Bronowicka-Mielniczuk. 2020. "Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Quality in the Bystrzyca River Basin, Poland" Water 12, no. 1: 190. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010190

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