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Evidence of Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Rainwater Trace Metal Geochemistry in Central Mexico: A Statistical Approach

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Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones y Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Calle 30 de junio de 1520, Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de Mexico (CDMX) C.P. 07340, Mexico
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Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Bulevar Juan de Dios Bátiz Paredes·250, Colonia San Joachin, Guasave, Sinaloa C.P. 81101, Mexico
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Centro Mexicano para la Producción más Limpia (CMP+L), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Av. Acueducto s/n, Col. Barrio la Laguna Ticomán, Gustavo A. Madero, Ciudad de Mexico (CDMX) C.P. 07340, Mexico
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Water Research Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010192
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Trace metals Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As were determined on a monthly basis in a total of 52 rain samples collected from six different locations in the central region of Mexico during March 2016–April 2017. The average concentrations of trace metals (mg/L) in the rainwater samples showed an order of Zn (0.873) > Fe (0.395) > Mn (0.083) > Cr (0.041) ≥ Cu (0.041) > Pb (0.031) > Ni (0.020) > Co (0.013) > As (0.0003) > Cd (0.002). The differences observed in metal concentrations are related to variations in the influence of continental air masses, local transport, regional advection, and the solubility of trace metals. High concentrations of metals were observed in the months of March to May at all sites, probably due to the less extensive removal of air/air pollutants. The values obtained from the enrichment factor (EF) per metal showed relatively high values for Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, and Cr, suggesting anthropogenic origin. Pearson’s correlation matrix validated the distribution of trace metal sources and their relationships with local/regional meteorological characteristics. This paper presents relevant basic information for the evaluation of the toxic potential of rainwater and the possible health risks when using this source of water for human consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater; provenance; geochemistry; trace metals; Central Mexico rainwater; provenance; geochemistry; trace metals; Central Mexico
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rivera-Rivera, D.M.; Escobedo-Urías, D.C.; Jonathan, M.P.; Sujitha, S.B.; Chidambaram, S. Evidence of Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Rainwater Trace Metal Geochemistry in Central Mexico: A Statistical Approach. Water 2020, 12, 192.

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