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Article

Sustainable Irrigation Using Non-Conventional Resources: What has Happened after 30 Years Regarding Boron Phytotoxicity?

1
Instituto de Investigación IUNAT, Grupo GEOVOL, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
Laboratorio Agroalimentario y Fitopatológico del Cabildo de Gran Canaria, 35013 Arucas, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091952
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 13 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Desalination of Seawater for Agricultural Irrigation)
In the Canary Islands, there is a hydrological imbalance between water consumption and renewable water availability. To provide more water resources, reverse osmosis (RO) from seawater is used. As boron (B) contents in irrigation water higher than 0.7 mg/L may be dangerous for sensible plants, B concentration in RO water (ROW) may be one of the key factors of irrigation sustainability. Some orchards have been studied after they have used drip irrigation using different water qualities for 30 years. B in water, soils, and banana leaves was determined to check the sustainability of ROW irrigation. When irrigating with ROW, in which B concentration varies between 1.0 and 1.4 mgB/L, B content in banana soils seems to be stabilized at 5–7 mg/kg, and no toxicity has been observed in banana leaves. The proper water and soil management used by the local farmers probably prevent the accumulation of higher B levels in soils. Considering water consumption of 9000 m3∙ha−1∙year−1, 8−11 kgB∙ha−1∙year−1 is applied to the soil. The banana plant removes approximately 1 kgB∙ha−1∙year−1; therefore, only 10% of the total B added gets exported. This raises the following question: is it better to use membranes that are able to reduce B in ROW, increase the leaching fraction, or blend water? View Full-Text
Keywords: desalinated water; irrigation; reverse osmosis; banana; water resources; soil; management; boron; phytotoxicity desalinated water; irrigation; reverse osmosis; banana; water resources; soil; management; boron; phytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza-Grimón, V.; Fernández-Vera, J.R.; Hernández-Moreno, J.M.; Palacios-Díaz, M.d.P. Sustainable Irrigation Using Non-Conventional Resources: What has Happened after 30 Years Regarding Boron Phytotoxicity? Water 2019, 11, 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091952

AMA Style

Mendoza-Grimón V, Fernández-Vera JR, Hernández-Moreno JM, Palacios-Díaz MdP. Sustainable Irrigation Using Non-Conventional Resources: What has Happened after 30 Years Regarding Boron Phytotoxicity? Water. 2019; 11(9):1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091952

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendoza-Grimón, Vanessa, Juan R. Fernández-Vera, Jose M. Hernández-Moreno, and María d.P. Palacios-Díaz 2019. "Sustainable Irrigation Using Non-Conventional Resources: What has Happened after 30 Years Regarding Boron Phytotoxicity?" Water 11, no. 9: 1952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091952

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