Next Article in Journal
Influence of Different Types of Small Hydropower Stations on Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Changjiang River Basin, China
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Gisele Cristina Rubert et al., Evapotranspiration of the Brazilian Pampa Biome: Seasonality and Influential Factors. Water 2018, 10, 1864
Open AccessArticle

Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Mokopane Area, Limpopo, South Africa Using Statistical Approach

1
Graduate school of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
2
Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
3
Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama 240-0115, Japan
4
Key Laboratory of the Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Xiamen University), Ministry of Education College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091891
Received: 14 July 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Assessments for Urban Water Environment)
Despite being a finite resource, both the quality and quantity of groundwater are under tremendous pressure due to rapid global changes, viz. population growth, land-use/land-cover changes (LULC), and climate change. The 6th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) aims to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. One of the most significant dimensions of the SDG agenda is the emphasis on data and governance. However, the lack of good governance coupled with good observed data cannot ensure the achievement of SDG6. Therefore, this study strives to evaluate water quality status and hydrochemical processes governing it in the data-scarce Mokopane area of South Africa. Groundwater is the main source of fresh water supply for domestic usage, intensive agriculture, and mining activities in Mokopane. In this study, hydrogeochemical analysis of groundwater samples was employed to calculate the water quality index (WQI) and evaluate factors governing water quality evolution in the study area. Statistical and spatial analysis techniques were carried out to divide sampling sites into clusters and delineate principal factors responsible for determining water quality of the sampled groundwater. Results suggest that most of the physico-chemical parameters are within permissible limits for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (WHO), except for high fluoride in some samples. Na-HCO3 is the most abundant water type followed by Mg-HCO3, which indicates dominance of Na+, Mg2+, and HCO3±. Rock-water interaction is the prime factor responsible for fluoride enrichment in water. The alkaline nature of groundwater favors the release of exchangeable F from minerals like muscovite. The WQI suggests that 80% of water samples fall into the good and excellent categories. Poor management of untreated domestic sewage and agricultural runoff is a main factor for the bad/very bad categories of water samples. As the area lacks any credible scientific/government work to report water quality and its management aspects, the findings of this study will definitely help both scientific communities and policy makers to do what is needed for sustainable water resource management in a timely manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; geospatial analysis; hydrogeochemical assessment; multivariate statistical analysis; water quality index groundwater; geospatial analysis; hydrogeochemical assessment; multivariate statistical analysis; water quality index
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Molekoa, M.D.; Avtar, R.; Kumar, P.; Minh, H.V.T.; Kurniawan, T.A. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Mokopane Area, Limpopo, South Africa Using Statistical Approach. Water 2019, 11, 1891.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop