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Open AccessArticle

Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Alluvial-Diluvial Plain of Southwest Shandong Province, China

1
College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
2
Shandong Geological Environmental Monitoring Station, Jinan 250014, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081577
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogeology: Trend, Model, Methodology and Concepts)
The alluvial-diluvial plain of southwest Shandong Province is an important agricultural economic zone and energy base in Shandong Province. Groundwater plays an extremely significant role in the development of the regional social economy. In this study, 50 sets of water samples, collected from 25 wells during October 2016 and June 2017, were utilized to determine the hydrogeochemistry and the suitability of groundwater in the alluvial-diluvial plain of southwest Shandong Province for different applications, such as drinking and irrigation. Most of the water samples could be classified as hard-fresh water or hard-brackish water, and the dominant water types were HCO3-Na and mixed types. Water-rock interactions and evaporation were the dominant controlling factors in the formation of the hydrochemical components in the groundwater. Dissolutions of silicate, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum are the major reactions contributing and defining the groundwater chemistry in this plain. Moreover, cation exchange is a non-negligible hydrogeochemical process in this plain. Calculated saturation index (SI) values indicate that aragonite, calcite and dolomite are saturated, while the SI values for gypsum and halite are unsaturated. Based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the groundwater quality ranges from excellent to very poor. More than 50% of all groundwater samples from 2016 are categorized as poor or very poor, suggesting that the water from these wells is not suitable for drinking. According to the sodium adsorption ratio and percentage sodium, most of the samples are suitable for agricultural irrigation. Overall, the quality of the groundwater in 2017 was found to be better than in 2016. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeochemical characteristics; water quality assessment; alluvial-diluvial plain of southwest Shandong Province groundwater; hydrogeochemical characteristics; water quality assessment; alluvial-diluvial plain of southwest Shandong Province
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Gao, Z.; Liu, J.; Feng, J.; Wang, M.; Wu, G. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Alluvial-Diluvial Plain of Southwest Shandong Province, China. Water 2019, 11, 1577.

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