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Open AccessArticle

Hydrochemical Characteristics and Temporal Variations of Geothermal Water Quality in Tangtou, Shandong, China

1
College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong, China
2
The Seventh Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Shandong Province, Linyi 276006, Shandong, China
3
Shandong Geological Environmental Monitoring Station, Jinan 250014, Shandong, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081643
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogeology: Trend, Model, Methodology and Concepts)
Geothermal water resources are a kind of clean energy, which is a renewable resource to a certain extent and has a high value of development and utilization. To understand the hydrochemical characteristics, origins, and temporal variations of geothermal water quality in Tangtou, 13 geothermal water samples from 2007 to 2019 and geothermal geological conditions were collected. Cl and Na+ are the major ions, which make the geothermal water belong Cl-Na type. The total dissolved solids values of geothermal waters were 1560–2512 mg/L and pH were in the range of 6.7–8.8. The development of faulted structures provides conditions for the formation of geothermal water. In addition, geothermal water is recharged by shallow underground cold water. Water-rock interaction, as well as mixing processes, in the process of long runoff path and the slower deep-water cycle is the main factor controlling the chemical composition of geothermal water. Calculated saturation index values indicated that the geothermal water was saturated with respect to silicate and carbonate minerals. Cation and silica chemical geothermometers indicated that reservoir temperatures ranged from 94.63 to 196.10 °C and from 69.13 to 123.75 °C, respectively. Based on the grey relational analysis, the main physicochemical components of geothermal water are obviously correlated with the geothermal water exploitation and precipitation. Overall, affected by exploitation and precipitation, main physicochemical components (such as the total dissolved solids, total hardness, temperature, Na+, Ca2+, Cl, K+, and Mg2+) showed a certain stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: geothermal water; hydrochemical characteristics; temporal variations; grey relational analysis; Tangtou geothermal water; hydrochemical characteristics; temporal variations; grey relational analysis; Tangtou
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Gao, Z.; Liu, J.; Li, F.; Wang, M.; Feng, J.; Wu, G. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Temporal Variations of Geothermal Water Quality in Tangtou, Shandong, China. Water 2019, 11, 1643.

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