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Removal and Ecotoxicity of 2,4-D and MCPA in Microbial Cultures Enriched with Structurally-Similar Plant Secondary Metabolites

1
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow, Poland
3
Department of Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Gdansk, Dębowa 23 A, 80-204 Gdansk, Poland
4
European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tylna 3, 90-364 Lodz, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology in Prague, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071451
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract

The removal of contaminants from the environment can be enhanced by interactions between structurally-related plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), selected xenobiotics and microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selected PSMs (ferulic acid—FA; syringic acid—SA) on the removal of structurally-similar phenoxy herbicides (PHs): 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). The study also examines the biodegradation potential of soil bacteria, based on the occurrence of functional tdfA-like genes, and the ecotoxicity of the samples against two test species: Sinapis alba L. and Lepidium sativum L. The microbial cultures spiked with the PSMs demonstrated higher phenoxy acid removal: 97–100% in the case of 2,4-D and 99%–100% for MCPA. These values ranged from 5% to 100% for control samples not amended with FA or SA. The higher herbicide removal associated with PSM spiking can be attributed to acceleration of the microbial degradation processes. Our findings showed that the addition of SA particularly stimulated the occurrence of the total number of tfdA genes, with this presence being higher than that observed in the unamended samples. PSM spiking was also found to have a beneficial effect on ecotoxicity mitigation, reflected in high (102%) stimulation of root growth by the test species. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2,4-D; MCPA; plant secondary metabolites; ferulic acid; syringic acid; biodegradation; ecotoxicity 2,4-D; MCPA; plant secondary metabolites; ferulic acid; syringic acid; biodegradation; ecotoxicity
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Mierzejewska, E.; Baran, A.; Tankiewicz, M.; Urbaniak, M. Removal and Ecotoxicity of 2,4-D and MCPA in Microbial Cultures Enriched with Structurally-Similar Plant Secondary Metabolites. Water 2019, 11, 1451.

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