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Use of Bacteria and Synthetic Zeolites in Remediation of Soil and Water Polluted with Superhigh-Organic-Sulfur Raša Coal (Raša Bay, North Adriatic, Croatia)

1
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
3
Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
4
Department of Earth Sciences, IISER, Kolkata 700073, India
5
Factory ‘Alumina Ltd.’, 71000 Zvornik, Bosnia and Herzegovina
6
Factory ‘Zeochem Ltd.’, 71000 Zvornik, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071419
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract

The Raša Bay (North Adriatic, Croatia) has been receiving various pollutants by inflowing streams laden with untreated municipal and coalmine effluents for decades. The locality was a regional center of coalmining (Raša coal), coal combustion, and metal processing industries for more than two centuries. As local soil and stream water were found to be contaminated with sulfur and potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) as a consequence of weathering of Raša coal and its waste, some clean-up measures are highly required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the remediating potential of selected microorganisms and synthetic zeolites in the case of soil and coal-mine water, respectively, for the first time. By employing bacterial cultures of Ralstonia sp., we examined removal of sulfur and selected PTEs (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn) from soil. The removal of sulfur was up to 60%, arsenic up to 80%, while Se, Ba, and V up to 60%, and U up to 20%. By applying synthetic zeolites on water from the Raša coalmine and a local stream, the significant removal values were found for Sr (up to 99.9%) and Ba (up to 99.2%) only. Removal values were quite irregular (insignificant) in the cases of Fe, Ni, Zn, and Se, which were up to 80%, 50%, 30%, and 20%, respectively. Although promising, the results call for further research on this topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: coal; soil; water; bioremediation; Ralstonia sp.; sulfur; synthetic zeolite; removal coal; soil; water; bioremediation; Ralstonia sp.; sulfur; synthetic zeolite; removal
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Medunić, G.; Singh, P.K.; Singh, A.L.; Rai, A.; Rai, S.; Jaiswal, M.K.; Obrenović, Z.; Petković, Z.; Janeš, M. Use of Bacteria and Synthetic Zeolites in Remediation of Soil and Water Polluted with Superhigh-Organic-Sulfur Raša Coal (Raša Bay, North Adriatic, Croatia). Water 2019, 11, 1419.

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