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Stormwater Retention and Reuse at the Residential Plot Level—Green Roof Experiment and Water Balance Computations for Long-Term Use in Cyprus

1
Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, 20 Kostantinou Kavafi, 2121 Nicosia, Cyprus
2
KANA Hydrocontrol Ltd., P.O. Box 71044, 3840 Limassol, Cyprus
3
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ‘A. Desio’, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano, Italy
4
Agricultural Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia, Cyprus
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051055
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract

Green roofs can provide various benefits to urban areas, including stormwater retention. However, semi-arid regions are a challenging environment for green roofs as long dry weather periods are met with short but intense rainfall events. This requires green roofs to retain maximum volumes of stormwater, while being tolerant to minimal irrigation supplies. The objectives of this study are (i) to quantify the stormwater retention of two substrate mixtures with two plant species under natural rainfall; (ii) to assess the performance of two plant species under two levels of deficit irrigation; and (iii) to compute stormwater runoff reduction and reuse by green roofs and rooftop water harvesting systems for three standard residential plot types in urban Nicosia, Cyprus. A rooftop experiment was carried out between February 2016 and April 2017 and results were used to compute long-term performance. Average stormwater retention of the 16 test beds was 77% of the 371-mm rainfall. A survival rate of 88% was recorded for Euphorbia veneris and 20% for Frankenia laevis, for a 30% evapotranspiration irrigation treatment. A combination of a green roof, rainwater harvesting system and 20-m3 tank for irrigation and indoor greywater use reduced stormwater runoff by 47–53%, for the 30-year water balance computations. View Full-Text
Keywords: green roof; stormwater retention; deficit irrigation; water balance; rainwater harvesting; greywater use green roof; stormwater retention; deficit irrigation; water balance; rainwater harvesting; greywater use
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Charalambous, K.; Bruggeman, A.; Eliades, M.; Camera, C.; Vassiliou, L. Stormwater Retention and Reuse at the Residential Plot Level—Green Roof Experiment and Water Balance Computations for Long-Term Use in Cyprus. Water 2019, 11, 1055.

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