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Water 2019, 11(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040712

Effecting Partial Elimination of Isocyanuric Acid from Swimming Pool Water Systems

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, 26004 Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
2
Department of Mining Exploitation and Prospecting, University of Oviedo, 33004 Oviedo, Principality of Asturias, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
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Abstract

It is essential to disinfect the water in swimming pools in order to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Chlorination of swimming pool water provides rapid and long-lasting disinfection, but leads to the formation of potentially toxic compounds, including isocyanuric acid, that are used to stabilize chlorine in pool water. Hygiene and health guidelines require an isocyanuric acid concentration in swimming pools of 25 to 75 ppm and that there be no level in excess of 100 ppm. This paper provides a new method to partially remove isocyanuric acid from the water of swimming pool systems with the use of melamine-based reagents. A melamine-photometry process stabilizes the isocyanuric acid. The melamine-based reagent that is added to the raw water reacts with the isocyanuric acid and forms a precipitated salt. The reaction also creates turbidity that is proportional to the isocyanuric acid concentration in the water. It was noted in this study that the optimum functioning range of melamine doses in the raw water was 0.04 to 0.06 g/L and that the reduction of isocyanuric acid in raw water increased as the dose of melamine was increased. Thus, it is necessary to obtain an estimate of the dose of melamine that is necessary to reduce the isocyanuric acid in the water without needing to add fresh water from the network to dilute it. Finally, it can be stated that eliminating isocyanuric acid that has accumulated in a pool’s water by treatment with melamine provides an efficient process, as it eliminates the amount of isocyanuric acid that is necessary to conform to the human health criteria of the European Union Directive 2006/7/EC. Treatment with melamine also reduces water network consumption and sewer discharge by successive purges that eventually will become unnecessary. Therefore, this proposed method is environmentally and economically beneficial. View Full-Text
Keywords: isocyanuric acid; water saving; melamine; chlorination; swimming pools systems; swimming pool water; THMs; disinfection byproduct isocyanuric acid; water saving; melamine; chlorination; swimming pools systems; swimming pool water; THMs; disinfection byproduct
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Corral Bobadilla, M.; Vergara González, E.P.; Lostado Lorza, R.; Somovilla Gómez, F. Effecting Partial Elimination of Isocyanuric Acid from Swimming Pool Water Systems. Water 2019, 11, 712.

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