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Article

Water Quality Indices: Challenges and Application Limits in the Literature

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UMR 1114 Mediterranean Environment and Modelling of Agro-Hydrosystems (EMMAH), National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA), 84914 CEDEX 9 Avignon, France
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UMR 1114 Mediterranean Environment and Modelling of Agro-Hydrosystems (EMMAH), Avignon University (AU), 84914 CEDEX 9 Avignon, France
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National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia (INAT), University of Carthage, Tunis 1082, Tunisia
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Water and Forests (INRGREF), Hydrology-Water and Soil Conservation, National Research Institute of Rural Engineering, Tunis 2080, Tunisia
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Water Researches and Technologies Center of Borj-Cedria (CERTE)-Laboratory of Natural Water Treatment (LabTEN), University of Carthage, Soliman 8020, Tunisia
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French Academy of Agriculture (AAF), 75007 Paris, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020361
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Since Horton in 1965, many authors have sought to aggregate different variables characterizing the state of water into a single value called Water Quality Index ( W Q I ). This index is intended to facilitate the operational management of water resources and their allocation for different uses. Detailed and operational description of the main W Q I calculations are here reviewed. The review contains: (1) an historical analysis of the evolution of W Q I calculation methods by looking both at the choice of variables, the methods of weighting and aggregating these variables into a final single value; (2) an illustration of the contradictions observed in the final result when, on the same database, the W Q I is calculated by different methods; (3) the significant progress possible via fuzzy logic to define a W Q I adapted to specific water use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water Quality Indices; aggregation; weighting; fuzzy logic Water Quality Indices; aggregation; weighting; fuzzy logic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kachroud, M.; Trolard, F.; Kefi, M.; Jebari, S.; Bourrié, G. Water Quality Indices: Challenges and Application Limits in the Literature. Water 2019, 11, 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020361

AMA Style

Kachroud M, Trolard F, Kefi M, Jebari S, Bourrié G. Water Quality Indices: Challenges and Application Limits in the Literature. Water. 2019; 11(2):361. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020361

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kachroud, Moez, Fabienne Trolard, Mohamed Kefi, Sihem Jebari, and Guilhem Bourrié. 2019. "Water Quality Indices: Challenges and Application Limits in the Literature" Water 11, no. 2: 361. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020361

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