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Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100413

An Assessment of Stratospheric Intrusions in Italian Mountain Regions Using STEFLUX

1
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council of Italy, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Psychological, Health & Territorial Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
RSE S.p.A.—Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico, Via Rubattino, 20134 Milano, Italy
4
Institute of Atmospheric Pollution, National Research Council of Italy, 87036 Rende, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stratosphere–Troposphere Exchanges)
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Abstract

The Mediterranean basin is considered a global hot-spot region for climate change and air quality, especially concerning summer-time ozone (O3). Previous investigations indicated that the Mediterranean basin is a preferred region for stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange (STE) and deep stratospheric intrusion (SI) events. The Lagrangian tool STEFLUX, based on a STE climatology that uses the ERA Interim data, was hereby used to diagnose the occurrence of deep SI events in four mountain regions over the Italian peninsula, spanning from the Alpine region to the southern Apennines. By using near-surface O3 and relative humidity (RH) observations at three high-mountain observatories, we investigated the performance of STEFLUX in detecting deep SI events. Both experimental and STEFLUX detections agreed in describing the seasonal cycle of SI occurrence. Moreover, STEFLUX showed skills in detecting “long-lasting” SI events, especially in the Alps and in the northern Apennines. By using STEFLUX, we found positive tendencies in the SI occurrence during 1979–2017. However, in contrast to similar studies carried out in the Alpine region, the negative long-term (1996–2016) trend of O3 in the northern Apennines did not appear to be related to the SI’s variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: stratosphere-to-troposphere transport; mountain regions; Mediterranean basin; ozone stratosphere-to-troposphere transport; mountain regions; Mediterranean basin; ozone
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Cristofanelli, P.; Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Apadula, F.; Bencardino, M.; D’Amore, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Putero, D. An Assessment of Stratospheric Intrusions in Italian Mountain Regions Using STEFLUX. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 413.

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