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Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100412

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 in Urumqi, China: Temporal Variations, Health Risk, and Sources

1
Key Laboratory of Coal Clean Conversion and Chemical Engineering Process, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
2
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Environment & Ecology, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou 510535, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Abstract

PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 samples were simultaneously collected in Urumqi from January to December 2011, and 14 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The mean concentrations of total PAHs in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were 20.90~844.22 ng m−3 and 19.65~176.5 ng m−3 respectively, with the highest in winter and the lowest in summer. Above 80% of PAHs were enriched in PM2.5, which showed remarkable seasonal variations compared to coarse particles. High molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were predominant in PM2.5 (46.61~85.13%), whereas the proportions of lower molecular weight (LMW) and HMW PAHs in PM2.5–10 showed a decreasing and an increasing trend, respectively, from spring to winter. The estimated concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent carcinogenic potency (BaPeq) in PM2.5 (10.49~84.52 ng m−3) were higher than that of in PM2.5–10 (1.15~13.33 ng m−3) except in summer. The estimated value of inhalation cancer risk in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were 1.63 × 10−4~7.35 × 10−3 and 9.94 × 10−5~1.16 × 10−3, respectively, far exceeding the health-based guideline level of 10−4. Diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization results demonstrated that PAHs in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were from similar sources, such as coal combustion, biomass burning, coking, and petroleum combustion, respectively. Coal combustion was the most important source for PAHs both in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10, accounting for 54.20% and 50.29%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: PAHs; particulate matter; particle size distribution; sources PAHs; particulate matter; particle size distribution; sources
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rekefu, S.; Talifu, D.; Gao, B.; Turap, Y.; Maihemuti, M.; Wang, X.; Abulizi, A. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 in Urumqi, China: Temporal Variations, Health Risk, and Sources. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 412.

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