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Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120467

Enhanced Stratosphere/Troposphere Coupling During Extreme Warm Stratospheric Events with Strong Polar-Night Jet Oscillation

1
Leibniz-Institute for Atmospheric Physics, University of Rostock, Ostseebad Kühlungsborn, D-18225 Mecklenburg, Germany
2
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research, PL 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stratosphere–Troposphere Exchanges)
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Abstract

Extreme warm stratospheric events during polar winters from ERA-Interim reanalysis and CMIP5-ESM-LR runs were separated by duration and strength of the polar-night jet oscillation (PJO) using a high statistical confidence level of three standard deviations (strong-PJO events). With a composite analysis, we demonstrate that strong-PJO events show a significantly stronger downward propagating signal in both, northern annular mode (NAM) and zonal mean zonal wind anomaly in the stratosphere in comparison with non-PJO events. The lower stratospheric EP-flux-divergence difference in ERA-Interim was stronger in comparison to long-term CMIP5-ESM-LR runs (by a factor of four). This suggests that stratosphere–troposphere coupling is stronger in ERA-Interim than in CMIP5-ESM-LR. During the 60 days following the central date (CD), the Arctic oscillation signal was more intense during strong-PJO events than during non-PJO events in ERA-Interim data in comparison to CMIP5-ESM-LR runs. During the 15-day phase after CD, strong PJO events had a significant increase in stratospheric ozone, upper tropospheric zonally asymmetric impact, and a regional surface impact in ERA-Interim. Finally, we conclude that the applied high statistical threshold gives a clearer separation of extreme warm stratospheric events into strong-PJO events and non-PJO events including their different downward propagating NAM signal and tropospheric impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: warm stratospheric events; major sudden stratospheric warmings; polar-night jet oscillation; northern annular mode; Arctic oscillation; EP-flux divergence; ERA-Interim; CMIP5; MPI-ESM-LR warm stratospheric events; major sudden stratospheric warmings; polar-night jet oscillation; northern annular mode; Arctic oscillation; EP-flux divergence; ERA-Interim; CMIP5; MPI-ESM-LR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Peters, D.H.; Schneidereit, A.; Karpechko, A.Y. Enhanced Stratosphere/Troposphere Coupling During Extreme Warm Stratospheric Events with Strong Polar-Night Jet Oscillation. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 467.

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