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Article

Assessment of Soybean Evapotranspiration and Controlled Water Stress Using Traditional and Converted Evapotranspirometers

1
Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 71, H-8361 Keszthely, Hungary
2
Miki-Cho Post Office, P.O. Box 7, Kagawa-ken 761-0799, Japan
3
Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, 2462 Martonvásár, Hungary
4
Festetics Doctoral School, Georgikon Faculty, University of Pannonia, 8360 Keszthely, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080830
Received: 1 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
Evapotranspiration (ETR), reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and seasonal ETR totals were determined for soybean over two growing seasons, at Keszthely, Hungary, using traditionally operated and converted evapotranspirometers. The study aimed to document the plant–water response of two soybean varieties (Sinara: Sin; Sigalia: Sig) which have different water demands. Three water supply treatments were tested: unlimited (WW) watering, 50% of crop water requirement (RO), and rainfed (P). Reconstructed evapotranspirometers allowed crop water deprivation to be simulated under field conditions. ETR sums were higher during the cooler 2017 than in the warmer 2018, calling attention to the importance of being informed about more detailed meteorological variables other than monthly (seasonal) means. In addition to variation in daily mean air temperatures (Ta), maximum Ta played a key role in determining ETR under naturally occurring extreme weather conditions in 2018. Irrespective of the variety, daily mean ETR was on average 65–75% greater than in the water-stress treatment. Unexpectedly, water stress-tolerant Sin used slightly more water than Sig, which was bred for standard weather conditions. Measured mean ETR was as much as 10% higher than derived ET0 rates, causing crop coefficient to exceed 1.0 during flowering. Careful selection of the soybean variety when practicing water-saving management may lead to more efficient variety improvement in a breeding program. It may also be important for soybean producers and farmers to adopt the best variety, aiming to decrease the use of irrigation water to increase seed yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: crop coefficient; evapotranspiration; Glycine max (L.) Merr.; LAI; soybean; SPAD; water use efficiency crop coefficient; evapotranspiration; Glycine max (L.) Merr.; LAI; soybean; SPAD; water use efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anda, A.; Simon, B.; Soos, G.; Teixeira da Silva, J.A.; Farkas, Z.; Menyhart, L. Assessment of Soybean Evapotranspiration and Controlled Water Stress Using Traditional and Converted Evapotranspirometers. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080830

AMA Style

Anda A, Simon B, Soos G, Teixeira da Silva JA, Farkas Z, Menyhart L. Assessment of Soybean Evapotranspiration and Controlled Water Stress Using Traditional and Converted Evapotranspirometers. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(8):830. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080830

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anda, Angela, Brigitta Simon, Gabor Soos, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Zsuzsanna Farkas, and Laszlo Menyhart. 2020. "Assessment of Soybean Evapotranspiration and Controlled Water Stress Using Traditional and Converted Evapotranspirometers" Atmosphere 11, no. 8: 830. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080830

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