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Article

Indoor Air Pollution from Residential Stoves: Examining the Flooding of Particulate Matter into Homes during Real-World Use

1
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
2
School of Sociology and Social Policy, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
3
Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(12), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121326
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality in the UK)
This study concerns the levels of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM1) released by residential stoves inside the home during ‘real world’ use. Focusing on stoves that were certified by the UK’s Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), PM sensors were placed in the vicinity of 20 different stoves over four weeks, recording 260 uses. The participants completed a research diary in order to provide information on time lit, amount and type of fuel used, and duration of use, among other details. Multivariate statistical tools were used in order to analyse indoor PM concentrations, averages, intensities, and their relationship to aspects of stove management. The study has four core findings. First, the daily average indoor PM concentrations when a stove was used were higher for PM2.5 by 196.23% and PM1 by 227.80% than those of the non-use control group. Second, hourly peak averages are higher for PM2.5 by 123.91% and for PM1 by 133.09% than daily averages, showing that PM is ‘flooding’ into indoor areas through normal use. Third, the peaks that are derived from these ’flooding’ incidents are associated with the number of fuel pieces used and length of the burn period. This points to the opening of the stove door as a primary mechanism for introducing PM into the home. Finally, it demonstrates that the indoor air pollution being witnessed is not originating from outside the home. Taken together, the study demonstrates that people inside homes with a residential stove are at risk of exposure to high intensities of PM2.5 and PM1 within a short period of time through normal use. It is recommended that this risk be reflected in the testing and regulation of residential stoves. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; wood burning stoves; particulate matter; particle number concentration; indoor air quality; low-cost sensors; internet of things air pollution; wood burning stoves; particulate matter; particle number concentration; indoor air quality; low-cost sensors; internet of things
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chakraborty, R.; Heydon, J.; Mayfield, M.; Mihaylova, L. Indoor Air Pollution from Residential Stoves: Examining the Flooding of Particulate Matter into Homes during Real-World Use. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121326

AMA Style

Chakraborty R, Heydon J, Mayfield M, Mihaylova L. Indoor Air Pollution from Residential Stoves: Examining the Flooding of Particulate Matter into Homes during Real-World Use. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(12):1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chakraborty, Rohit, James Heydon, Martin Mayfield, and Lyudmila Mihaylova. 2020. "Indoor Air Pollution from Residential Stoves: Examining the Flooding of Particulate Matter into Homes during Real-World Use" Atmosphere 11, no. 12: 1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11121326

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