Next Article in Journal
Effect of Natural Forest Fires on Regional Weather Conditions in Siberia
Next Article in Special Issue
Airborne Wear Particle Emissions Produced during the Dyno Bench Tests with a Slag Containing Semi-Metallic Brake Pads
Previous Article in Journal
Determining the Impact of Wildland Fires on Ground Level Ambient Ozone Levels in California
Previous Article in Special Issue
Experimental Characterization Protocols for Wear Products from Disc Brake Materials

Impacts on Brake Particle Emission Testing

AUDI AG, 85045 Ingolstadt, Germany
Horiba Europe GmbH, 61440 Oberursel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(10), 1132;
Received: 25 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study of Brake Wear Particle Emissions)
The presented article picks out brake particle emission testing as a central theme. Those emissions are part of the so-called non-exhaust emissions, which play an increasing role for particle emissions from transportation. The authors propose a laboratory test setup by using a brake dynamometer and a constant volume sampling approach to determine the emissions in regard to the particle number concentration. Several impacts were investigated while the same test cycle (novel worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (novel-WLTP)) was applied. In a first item, the importance of the bedding process was investigated and it is shown that friction couples without bedding emit much more particles. Furthermore, the efforts for reaching a bedded friction state are discussed. Additionally, the impact of brake lining compositions is investigated and shows that NAO concepts own crucial advantages in terms of brake particle emissions. Another impact, the vehicle weight and inertia, respectively, shows how important lightweight measures and brake cooling improvements are. Finally, the role of the load profile is discussed, which shows the importance of driving parameters like vehicle speed and reservoir dynamics. The authors show that, under urban driving conditions, extreme low particle emissions are detected. Furthermore, it is explained that off-brake emissions can play a relevant role in regard to brake particle emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: brake particle emissions; brake dynamometer; foundation brake brake particle emissions; brake dynamometer; foundation brake
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gramstat, S.; Mertens, T.; Waninger, R.; Lugovyy, D. Impacts on Brake Particle Emission Testing. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1132.

AMA Style

Gramstat S, Mertens T, Waninger R, Lugovyy D. Impacts on Brake Particle Emission Testing. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(10):1132.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gramstat, Sebastian, Thilo Mertens, Robert Waninger, and Dmytro Lugovyy. 2020. "Impacts on Brake Particle Emission Testing" Atmosphere 11, no. 10: 1132.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop