Considering the wide range of variability of all aerosol characteristics (especially in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere near industrial centers), when creating a realistic empirical model of optical and microphysical characteristics, the optimal dividing of the total data array according to some multifactor signs is needed. In this paper, we analyze the main states of “dry” aerosol on the basis of the results of long-term regular measurements in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere near the city of Tomsk in 2000–2017. The following parameters were considered: aerosol number concentration and size distribution function, total and angular scattering coefficients, including the small-angle range 1.2° to 20°, mass concentration and size distribution of absorbing substances (equivalent black carbon), characteristics of the aerosol hygroscopic properties, and spectral aerosol extinction of radiation on an open long path in the wavelength range 0.45 to 3.9 µm. In our comprehensive study, we first proposed and developed an original approach (classification) to study the optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol of various physicochemical origins (background, smoke, smog, anthropogenic, etc.) based on dividing the entire data array into characteristic subarrays (types of aerosol weather), which differ from each other in a different combination of scattering and absorbing properties of particles. To divide the total data array into types of aerosol weather including “Background”, “Haze-S”, “Smog”, and “Smoke haze”, the values of the scattering coefficient of the dry aerosol matter σd
(λ = 0.51 μm) = 100 Mm−1
and the ratio of the mass concentration of the absorbing substance to the mass concentration of submicron aerosol P
= 0.05. The results showed that most of the seasonal average values of the aerosol parameters analyzed in the paper are statistically significantly different when comparing various characteristic types of scattering and absorbing atmospheric aerosol. The results of the research indicate that the application of the developed classification of types of aerosol weather for the analyzed optical and microphysical parameters of aerosol particles is quite effective and reasonable.
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