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Exposures to Carbon Monoxide in a Cookstove Intervention in Northern Ghana

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 427 UCB, 1111 Engineering Drive, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
2
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder, 526 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0526, USA
3
Navrongo Health Research Center, Post Office Box 114, Upper East Region, Navrongo 03821, Ghana
4
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Campus Box 216, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
5
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Colorado School of Public Health, 13001 E, 17th Place, Box B119, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
6
National Center for Atmospheric Science, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070402
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract

Biomass burning for home energy use is a major environmental health concern. Improved cooking technologies could generate environmental health benefits, yet prior results regarding reduced personal exposure to air pollution are mixed. In this study, two improved stove types were distributed over four study groups in Northern Ghana. Participants wore real-time carbon monoxide (CO) monitors to measure the effect of the intervention on personal exposures. Relative to the control group (those using traditional stoves), there was a 30.3% reduction in CO exposures in the group given two Philips forced draft stoves (p = 0.08), 10.5% reduction in the group given two Gyapa stoves (locally made rocket stoves) (p = 0.62), and 10.2% reduction in the group given one of each (p = 0.61). Overall, CO exposure for participants was low given the prevalence of cooking over traditional three-stone fires, with 8.2% of daily samples exceeding WHO Tier-1 standards. We present quantification methods and performance of duplicate monitors. We analyzed the relationship between personal carbonaceous particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and CO exposure for the dataset that included both measurements, finding a weak relationship likely due to the diversity of identified air pollution sources in the region and behavior variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure; carbon monoxide; cooking; mixed effects models; micro-environment exposure; carbon monoxide; cooking; mixed effects models; micro-environment
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Piedrahita, R.; Coffey, E.R.; Hagar, Y.; Kanyomse, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Dickinson, K.L.; Oduro, A.; Hannigan, M.P. Exposures to Carbon Monoxide in a Cookstove Intervention in Northern Ghana. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 402.

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