Next Article in Journal
A Near-Field Gaussian Plume Inversion Flux Quantification Method, Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Sampling
Next Article in Special Issue
Kitchen Area Air Quality Measurements in Northern Ghana: Evaluating the Performance of a Low-Cost Particulate Sensor within a Household Energy Study
Previous Article in Journal
An Assessment of the Temperature and Humidity of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v6 Profiles Using Radiosonde Data in the Lee of the Tibetan Plateau
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Attributing Air Pollutant Exposure to Emission Sources with Proximity Sensing

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0526, USA
Navrongo Health Research Center, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Science, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 395;
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
PDF [1627 KB, uploaded 14 July 2019]
  |     |  


Biomass burning for home energy use contributes to negative health outcomes and environmental degradation. As part of the REACCTING study (Research on Emissions, Air quality, Climate, and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana), personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) was measured to gauge the effects of introducing two different cookstove types over four intervention groups. A novel Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) Beacon system was deployed on a subset of those CO measurement periods to estimate participants’ distances to their most-used cooking areas during the sampling periods. In addition to presenting methods and validation for the BLE Beacon system, here we present pollution exposure assessment modeling results using two different approaches, in which time-activity (proximity) data is used to: (1) better understand exposure and behaviors within and away from homes; and (2) predict personal exposure via microenvironment air quality measurements. Model fits were improved in both cases, demonstrating the benefits of the proximity measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposure; carbon monoxide; cooking; time-activity; proximity exposure; carbon monoxide; cooking; time-activity; proximity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Piedrahita, R.; Coffey, E.R.; Hagar, Y.; Kanyomse, E.; Verploeg, K.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Dickinson, K.L.; Oduro, A.; Hannigan, M.P. Attributing Air Pollutant Exposure to Emission Sources with Proximity Sensing. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 395.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top