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Generalized Electric Field Equations of a Time-Varying Current Distribution Based on the Electromagnetic Fields of Moving and Accelerating Charges

Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 752 37 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 171 77 Solna, Sweden
HEIG-VD, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, 1401 Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland
Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 367;
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Atmosphere: Climatology and Meteorology)
PDF [1167 KB, uploaded 30 July 2019]


In several studies conducted recently, it was shown that equations pertinent to the electric and magnetic fields produced by electrical charges in motion can be used to calculate the electromagnetic fields produced by current pulses propagating along linearly restricted paths. An example includes the case of current pulses propagating along conductors and conducting channels such as lightning. In this paper, it is shown how the technique can be applied to estimate the electromagnetic fields generated by current and charge distributions moving in arbitrary directions in space. The analysis shows that, depending on the way the problem is formulated using the field equations pertinent to accelerating charges, one procedure leads to the generalized dipole equations, which are independent of the velocity of propagation of the current, and the other procedure leads to a set of equations that depend on the velocity. Using the well-tested transmission line model of lightning return strokes as an example, it is shown that both sets of field equations give rise to the same total electromagnetic field. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning; electromagnetic fields; radiation fields; accelerating charges lightning; electromagnetic fields; radiation fields; accelerating charges

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Cooray, V.; Cooray, G.; Rubinstein, M.; Rachidi, F. Generalized Electric Field Equations of a Time-Varying Current Distribution Based on the Electromagnetic Fields of Moving and Accelerating Charges. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 367.

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