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Article

The Role of Microbiome and Genotype in Daphnia magna upon Parasite Re-Exposure

1
Laboratory of Aquatic Biology, Department of Biology, University of Leuven-Campus Kulak, E. Sabbelaan 53, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
2
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, Department of Biology, KULeuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2021, 12(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12010070
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 31 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Dynamics of Wild Populations)
Recently, it has been shown that the community of gut microorganisms plays a crucial role in host performance with respect to parasite tolerance. Knowledge, however, is lacking on the role of the gut microbiome in mediating host tolerance after parasite re-exposure, especially considering multiple parasite infections. We here aimed to fill this knowledge gap by studying the role of the gut microbiome on tolerance in Daphnia magna upon multiple parasite species re-exposure. Additionally, we investigated the role of the host genotype in the interaction between the gut microbiome and the host phenotypic performance. A microbiome transplant experiment was performed in which three germ-free D. magna genotypes were exposed to a gut microbial inoculum and a parasite community treatment. The gut microbiome inocula were pre-exposed to the same parasite communities or a control treatment. Daphnia performance was monitored, and amplicon sequencing was performed to characterize the gut microbial community. Our experimental results showed that the gut microbiome plays no role in Daphnia tolerance upon parasite re-exposure. We did, however, find a main effect of the gut microbiome on Daphnia body size reflecting parasite specific responses. Our results also showed that it is rather the Daphnia genotype, and not the gut microbiome, that affected parasite-induced host mortality. Additionally, we found a role of the genotype in structuring the gut microbial community, both in alpha diversity as in the microbial composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: Daphnia magna; diversity; dysbiosis; genotype; gut microbiome; parasite re-exposure; tolerance Daphnia magna; diversity; dysbiosis; genotype; gut microbiome; parasite re-exposure; tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bulteel, L.; Houwenhuyse, S.; Declerck, S.A.J.; Decaestecker, E. The Role of Microbiome and Genotype in Daphnia magna upon Parasite Re-Exposure. Genes 2021, 12, 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12010070

AMA Style

Bulteel L, Houwenhuyse S, Declerck SAJ, Decaestecker E. The Role of Microbiome and Genotype in Daphnia magna upon Parasite Re-Exposure. Genes. 2021; 12(1):70. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12010070

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bulteel, Lore, Shira Houwenhuyse, Steven A. J. Declerck, and Ellen Decaestecker. 2021. "The Role of Microbiome and Genotype in Daphnia magna upon Parasite Re-Exposure" Genes 12, no. 1: 70. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12010070

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