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Review

The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures

1
Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
2
Department of Life Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
3
English Institute of Sport, Nottingham NG12 2LU, UK
4
Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health, University College London, London W1T 7HA, UK
5
Holos Life Sciences, Oxford OX1 3HA, UK
6
Oxford BioDynamics, Oxford OX4 2JZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(8), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080905
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 3 August 2020 / Accepted: 5 August 2020 / Published: 7 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Influence in Exercise Performance)
The integration of genetic and environmental factors that regulate the gene expression patterns associated with exercise adaptation is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The organisation of the human genome within three-dimensional space, known as chromosome conformation, has recently been shown as a dynamic epigenetic regulator of gene expression, facilitating the interaction of distal genomic regions due to tight and regulated packaging of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Technological advances in the study of chromosome conformation mean a new class of biomarker—the chromosome conformation signature (CCS)—can identify chromosomal interactions across several genomic loci as a collective marker of an epigenomic state. Investigative use of CCSs in biological and medical research shows promise in identifying the likelihood that a disease state is present or absent, as well as an ability to prospectively stratify individuals according to their likely response to medical intervention. The association of CCSs with gene expression patterns suggests that there are likely to be CCSs that respond, or regulate the response, to exercise and related stimuli. The present review provides a contextual background to CCS research and a theoretical framework discussing the potential uses of this novel epigenomic biomarker within sport and exercise science and medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetics; epigenetics; exercise; exercise training; chromatin; sports medicine genetics; epigenetics; exercise; exercise training; chromatin; sports medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hall, E.C.R.; Murgatroyd, C.; Stebbings, G.K.; Cunniffe, B.; Harle, L.; Salter, M.; Ramadass, A.; Westra, J.W.; Hunter, E.; Akoulitchev, A.; Williams, A.G. The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures. Genes 2020, 11, 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080905

AMA Style

Hall ECR, Murgatroyd C, Stebbings GK, Cunniffe B, Harle L, Salter M, Ramadass A, Westra JW, Hunter E, Akoulitchev A, Williams AG. The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures. Genes. 2020; 11(8):905. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080905

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hall, Elliott C.R., Christopher Murgatroyd, Georgina K. Stebbings, Brian Cunniffe, Lee Harle, Matthew Salter, Aroul Ramadass, Jurjen W. Westra, Ewan Hunter, Alexandre Akoulitchev, and Alun G. Williams. 2020. "The Prospective Study of Epigenetic Regulatory Profiles in Sport and Exercise Monitored Through Chromosome Conformation Signatures" Genes 11, no. 8: 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080905

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