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Open AccessArticle

Effects of CYP1A2 and ADORA2A Genotypes on the Ergogenic Response to Caffeine in Professional Handball Players

1
Exercise and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Madrid, Spain
2
Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (INEF), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Exercise Physiology Group, School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Francisco Vitoria, 28223 Madrid, Spain
4
Faculty of Medicine, Research Unit, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid, Spain
5
Sports Research Centre, Miguel Hernandez University of Elche, 03202 Alicante, Spain
6
Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(8), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11080933
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 30 July 2020 / Accepted: 11 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Influence in Exercise Performance)
Previous investigations have found that several genes may be associated with the interindividual variability to the ergogenic response to caffeine. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the genetic variations in CYP1A2 (−163C  > A, rs762551; characterized such as “fast” (AA genotype) and “slow” caffeine metabolizers (C-carriers)) and ADORA2A (1976T  > C; rs5751876; characterized by “high” (TT genotype) or “low” sensitivity to caffeine (C-carriers)) on the ergogenic response to acute caffeine intake in professional handball players. Thirty-one professional handball players (sixteen men and fifteen women; daily caffeine intake = 60 ± 25 mg·d−1) ingested 3 mg·kg−1·body mass (bm) of caffeine or placebo 60 min before undergoing a battery of performance tests consisting of a countermovement jump (CMJ), a sprint test, an agility test, an isometric handgrip test, and several ball throws. Afterwards, the handball players performed a simulated handball match (2 × 20 min) while movements were recorded using inertial units. Saliva samples were analyzed to determine the genotype of each player for the −163C  > A polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene (rs762551) and for the 1976T  > C polymorphism in the ADORA2A gene (rs5751876). In the CYP1A2, C-allele carriers (54.8%) were compared to AA homozygotes (45.2%). In the ADORA2A, C-allele carriers (80.6%) were compared to TT homozygotes (19.4%). There was only a genotype x treatment interaction for the ball throwing from 7 m (p = 0.037) indicating that the ergogenic effect of caffeine on this test was higher in CYP1A2 AA homozygotes than in C-allele carriers. In the remaining variables, there were no genotype x treatment interactions for CYP1A2 or for ADORA2A. As a whole group, caffeine increased CMJ height, performance in the sprint velocity test, and ball throwing velocity from 9 m (2.8–4.3%, p = 0.001–0.022, effect size = 0.17–0.31). Thus, pre-exercise caffeine supplementation at a dose of 3 mg·kg−1·bm can be considered as an ergogenic strategy to enhance some neuromuscular aspects of handball performance in professional handball players with low daily caffeine consumption. However, the ergogenic response to acute caffeine intake was not modulated by CYP1A2 or ADORA2A genotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergogenic aids; genetics; polymorphism; team-sport athletes; sport performance ergogenic aids; genetics; polymorphism; team-sport athletes; sport performance
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Muñoz, A.; López-Samanes, Á.; Aguilar-Navarro, M.; Varillas-Delgado, D.; Rivilla-García, J.; Moreno-Pérez, V.; Del Coso, J. Effects of CYP1A2 and ADORA2A Genotypes on the Ergogenic Response to Caffeine in Professional Handball Players. Genes 2020, 11, 933.

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