Previous study has demonstrated that the riboflavin treatment promoted the early ripening of the ‘Kyoho’ grape berry. However, the molecular mechanism causing this was unclear. In order to reveal the regulation mechanism of riboflavin treatment on grape berry development and ripening, the different berry developmental stages of the ‘Kyoho’ berry treated with 0.5 mmol/L of riboflavin was sampled for transcriptome profiling. RNA-seq revealed that 1526 and 430 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, for the comparisons of the treatment to the control. TCseq analysis showed that the expression patterns of most of the genes were similar between the treatment and the control, except for some genes that were related to the chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis–antenna proteins, and photosynthesis, which were revealed by the enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The differentially expressed genes and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) analysis identified some significantly differentially expressed genes and some hub genes, including up-regulation of the photosynthesis-related ELIP1
and growth and development-related GDSL
; and down-regulation of the oxidative stress-related ATHSP22
and berry softening-related XTH32
. The results suggested that the riboflavin treatment resulted in the variations of the expression levels of these genes, and then led to the early ripening of the ‘Kyoho’ berry.
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