The Genetic Variability of APOE in Different Human Populations and Its Implications for Longevity
AbstractHuman longevity is a complex phenotype resulting from the combinations of context-dependent gene-environment interactions that require analysis as a dynamic process in a cohesive ecological and evolutionary framework. Genome-wide association (GWAS) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies on centenarians pointed toward the inclusion of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms ε2 and ε4, as implicated in the attainment of extreme longevity, which refers to their effect in age-related Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this case, the available literature on APOE and its involvement in longevity is described according to an anthropological and population genetics perspective. This aims to highlight the evolutionary history of this gene, how its participation in several biological pathways relates to human longevity, and which evolutionary dynamics may have shaped the distribution of APOE haplotypes across the globe. Its potential adaptive role will be described along with implications for the study of longevity in different human groups. This review also presents an updated overview of the worldwide distribution of APOE alleles based on modern day data from public databases and ancient DNA samples retrieved from literature in the attempt to understand the spatial and temporal frame in which present-day patterns of APOE variation evolved. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
ZIP-Document (ZIP, 26 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Abondio, P.; Sazzini, M.; Garagnani, P.; Boattini, A.; Monti, D.; Franceschi, C.; Luiselli, D.; Giuliani, C. The Genetic Variability of APOE in Different Human Populations and Its Implications for Longevity. Genes 2019, 10, 222.
Abondio P, Sazzini M, Garagnani P, Boattini A, Monti D, Franceschi C, Luiselli D, Giuliani C. The Genetic Variability of APOE in Different Human Populations and Its Implications for Longevity. Genes. 2019; 10(3):222.Chicago/Turabian Style
Abondio, Paolo; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; Boattini, Alessio; Monti, Daniela; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Giuliani, Cristina. 2019. "The Genetic Variability of APOE in Different Human Populations and Its Implications for Longevity." Genes 10, no. 3: 222.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.