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Open AccessArticle

Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in England and Wales: A Major Vaccine Evader

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Vaccine Preventable Bacteria Section, Public Health England–National Infection Service, London NW9 5EQ, UK
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Immunisation and Countermeasures, Public Health England–National Infection Service, London NW9 5EQ, UK
3
Statistics, Modelling and Economics, Public Health England–National Infection Service, London NW9 5EQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(11), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10110845
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Genetics of Streptococcus pneumoniae)
Despite its inclusion in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13), Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 remains a major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. Previous studies have indicated that there are distinct lineages within serotype 3 clonal complex 180 and the clade distributions have shifted in recent years with the emergence of clade II. We undertook whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis of 616 serotype 3 isolates from England and Wales between 2003 and 2018, including invasive and carriage isolates. Our investigations showed that clade II has expanded since 2014 and now represents 50% of serotype 3 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates in England and Wales. Genomic analysis of antibiotic resistance and protein antigen genes showed that distinct profiles are present within the clades which could account for the recent emergence of this clade. This investigation highlights the importance and utility of routine whole genome sequencing and its ability to identify new and emerging variation at the single nucleotide level which informs surveillance and will impact future vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; serotype 3; whole genome sequencing Streptococcus pneumoniae; serotype 3; whole genome sequencing
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Groves, N.; Sheppard, C.L.; Litt, D.; Rose, S.; Silva, A.; Njoku, N.; Rodrigues, S.; Amin-Chowdhury, Z.; Andrews, N.; Ladhani, S.; Fry, N.K. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in England and Wales: A Major Vaccine Evader. Genes 2019, 10, 845.

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