We determined the complete mitogenome of Pyrrhocoris tibialis
(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) to better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, which is the second largest infra-order of Heteroptera. Gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structures, and sequences of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor were well conserved in Pyrrhocoroidea. Different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G + C content. The size of control regions (CRs) was highly variable among mitogenomes of three sequenced Pyrrhocoroidea species, with the P. tibialis
CR being the largest. All the transfer RNA genes found in Pyrrhocoroidea had the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN), which lacked the dihydrouridine arm and possessed an unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). A total of three different phylogenetic relationships among the five super-families of Pentatomomorpha were obtained using three analytical methods (MrBayes and RAxML under site-homogeneous models and PhyloBayes under a site-heterogeneous CAT + GTR model) and two mitogenomic datasets (nucleotides and amino acids). The tree topology test using seven methods statistically supported a phylogeny of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))) as the best topology, as recognized by both RAxML and MrBayes based on the two datasets.
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