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Genes 2019, 10(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10010053

Tuberculosis Genetic Epidemiology: A Latin American Perspective

1
Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 3JH, UK
2
Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W2 1NY, UK
3
Great Ormond Street Hospital, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 3JH, UK
4
Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Av. Honorio Delgado 430, San Martin de Porres 15102, Lima, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Epidemiology of Complex Diseases in Latin America)
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Abstract

There are an estimated 10 million new cases of tuberculosis worldwide annually, with 282,000 new or relapsed cases each year reported from the Americas. With improvements in genome sequencing technology, it is now possible to study the genetic diversity of tuberculosis with much greater resolution. Although tuberculosis bacteria do not engage in horizontal gene transfer, the genome is far more variable than previously thought. The study of genome-wide variation in tuberculosis has improved our understanding of the evolutionary origins of tuberculosis, the arrival of tuberculosis in Latin America, the genetic determinants of drug resistance, and lineage-specific associations with important clinical phenotypes. This article reviews what is known about the arrival of tuberculosis in Latin America, the genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Latin America, and the genotypic determinants of clinical phenotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; genetics; whole-genome sequencing; South America; Latin America; pathology; transmission Mycobacterium tuberculosis; tuberculosis; multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; genetics; whole-genome sequencing; South America; Latin America; pathology; transmission
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Woodman, M.; Haeusler, I.L.; Grandjean, L. Tuberculosis Genetic Epidemiology: A Latin American Perspective. Genes 2019, 10, 53.

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